Chapter 14

New initiatives and preparations for the Montréal congress (1993–1995)

For the first time since the Union’s formative years when it sponsored its first congress in Montréal in 1954, after the Union’s founding in 1951 at the 13th international congress in Stockholm, preparations were underway for holding the 26th International Congress of Psychology once again in Montréal. Discussion of plans for the 1996 Montréal congress occurred at every meeting of the Executive Committee during the 4 years between Brussels and Montréal, as well as during the Assembly meeting in 1994 at the International Congress of Applied Psychology in Madrid. In addition, the newly reconstituted Executive Committee continued to move forward with new initiatives as well as execution of previous ones, using its expanded committee structure to carry them out.

Executive Committee meeting, Montréal 1993

The Executive Committee met at headquarters of the Société du Centre de Conférences Internationales in Montréal on August 24–28, 1993. In addition to the congress plans, major issues to be discussed at the meeting included (1) how to provide badly needed assistance to psychologists in Eastern Europe, where newly independent countries were still undergoing major transitions, (2) how to stimulate more regional meetings in between the quadrennial world congresses, and (3) how to implement effectively the expanding list of important international projects the Union had agreed to sponsor through its networks, committees, and organizational ties.

Sabourin, as Treasurer, reported that the annual budget was still severely limited, making it very difficult to undertake all the ambitious projects of interest unless additional external funding could be provided. Extra costs of the 1992 meetings in Brussels led to a reduction in total assets of the Union from US$190,520 to US$179,360. Based upon the Executive Committee’s evaluative judgments, internal funds of US$10,000 were available to distribute as follows among the Union’s continuing networks and projects: Psychological Dimensions of Global Change—US$2000; Human Development and Child Research Centers—US$2000; Psychology and Cognitive Science—US$1500; Researchers’ Perceptions of Factors Facilitating and Impeding Research (as a part of Developing World Network)—US$500; Development of Psychology as a Science and as a Profession—US$500; East-West Presidential Task Force—US$500; Advanced Research Training Seminars (ARTS)—US$2000; remaining reserve for later appropriation—US$1000.

Communication with some of the national member societies as well as their designated representatives continued to be a problem. Some had failed to pay their dues and had not requested a change to Category 0 status, which recognizes financial hardship cases among some of the smaller societies from developing countries. Overmier volunteered to develop an e-mail bulletin board on a trial basis for the Union in order to facilitate more rapid and effective communication, especially among members of the Executive Committee. The rapid expansion of electronic mail capability on a worldwide basis through the Internet during the 1990s vastly improved communication among members of the Executive Committee and between them and national member societies. And yet, some of the smaller societies in several underdeveloped countries still did not have e-mail capability by the end of the century, placing them at a disadvantage.

New developments in publications

In his report for the Committee on Communication and Publications, Rosenzweig introduced the new edition of the IUPsyS brochure published for the Union by the American Psychological Association (APA). Together with Oxford Press, APA had also launched a major new publication project to produce a comprehensive Encyclopedia of Psychology and had asked for nominations from IUPsyS of individuals who could serve on the International Advisory Board. A list drawn up by d’Ydewalle as Secretary-General was approved and sent forward to the Editor-in-Chief with the following names: Max Coltheart, Susan Pick De Weiss, Hiroshi Imada, Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Kurt Pawlik, Lea Pulkkinen, Maurice Reuchlin, Jai B. P. Sinha, Alexander Sokolov, Jan Strelau, and Zhou-Ming Wang.

Somewhat disturbing was the announcement that APA would no longer include abstracts of articles originally published in a language other than English in Psychological Abstracts. Such abstracts would still be included in PsycLIT, APA’s electronic media CD-ROM product. APA had offered to publish a stand-alone SCAN print product of the such non-English abstracts if the Union would guarantee its financial viability or if overseas publishers would share in the cost, but such alternatives were not judged feasible at that time by the Executive Committee.

Also disappointing was the failure of the merger the year before of the European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology and the International Journal of Psychology under the editorship of Jean Pailhous. Pailhous had asked for the merger as part of his agreement to become the new editor of the International Journal of Psychology since he wanted to continue editing the European Bulletin and thought the merger of the two journals might make the task more manageable. Unfortunately, the distortions in the content of the International Journal of Psychology created by this merger, as well as other problems associated with it, led Rosenzweig reluctantly to recommend that the merger be dissolved and that a new editor be named for the Journal, a recommendation that the Executive Committee unanimously approved.

Preliminary discussions held earlier with Francois Doré, University of Laval, Québec, Canada, indicated that he would be interested in serving as the new editor of the Journal. A review of his credentials by the Executive Committee led to his approval as the new editor, with the following general conditions stated in the editor’s contract: (1) appointment for 4 years, renewable once and possibly with the suggestion of a 1-year probation; (2) continued service as a function of a yearly assessment by the Executive Committee of IUPsyS; (3) appointments of the consulting editors by the editor to be made in consultation with the Standing Committee on Communication and Publications; (4) attendance of the editor at portions of the Executive Committee meetings by invitation of the Union’s President; and (5) IUPsyS payment of an annual stipend to the editor and the publisher’s payment of the editor’s office expenses. The editorial appointment became effective with the first issue of the Journal in 1994.

Research and special projects

As Chairman of this standing committee, Nilsson summarized the progress of seven networks and working groups, calling upon project directors for the details. The network on global change under Pawlik’s leadership organized a regional research training seminar in Malaysia in February 1993 on the psychology of global change. This network was also particularly active in a project under the auspices of ISSC called Perception and Assessment of Global Environmental Change.

The Network on the Young Child and Family Environment under Kagitcibasi had reported plans for an Advanced Research Training Seminar on Human Development to be held in Istanbul in 1994, recognizing the International Year of the Family. It was also noted that a multidisciplinary, international symposium on child development and family in China had been sponsored by IUPsyS and UNICEF in Beijing, July 7–11, with over 300 participants.

As reported by Sinha, a regional conference, Psychology and the Developing World, was sponsored by the IUPsyS in Katmandu, Nepal. Healthnet was taken over from Holtzman by Hogan, who stated that he wanted to address issues of behavioral medicine in developing countries and would be continuing the newsletter. Gelman, the new Chair of the Committee on Teaching of Psychology as a Science, expressed a desire to focus both upon psychology’s contribution to the teaching of science and the teaching of psychology as a scientific discipline. The project on Psychological Issues of Communication, initiated by Boris Lomov before his untimely death and carried on thereafter by Alexandra Belayeva of Moscow and Michael Cole of the University of California, San Diego, was deemed sufficiently successful in demonstrating the feasibility of an electronic network for international communications to justify terminating the project without prejudice.

Several new proposed projects were discussed and tabled for lack of funds. During the course of the discussion, three minimal criteria were adopted as a basis for approved funding: (1) existing networks/projects must have been active in the past year and must have submitted a written progress report when solicited by the Secretary-General for inclusion in the Union’s annual report; (2) for both new and old projects, a written plan for future action must have been submitted; and (3) there must be favorable review and a priority established by the appropriate committee as well as the Executive Committee. Henceforth, each standing committee would be expected to hold a meeting just prior to the annual Executive Committee meetings for the purpose of discussing plans and making recommendations for consideration by the Executive Committee.

As Chairman of the Committee on the Development of Psychology as a Science and a Profession, Imada presented a written proposal for compilation of a bibliography of selected materials on psychology in countries throughout the world and for conducting an analysis of the degree of coverage given to psychology in different countries. As a start, members of the Executive Committee were asked to send him relevant items from their own countries by November 30, 1993.

A proposal was also received from Michael Wessells (USA) to continue Union sponsorship of the Committee for the Psychological Study of Peace although, as in the past, no funding would be involved. Ardila reported on the Third International Symposium on the Contributions of Psychology to Peace that was held on August 15–19, 1993, at Randolph-Macon College, Virginia, USA. He also agreed to serve as liaison to the committee in place of Takala because of his interest in peace research. The Executive Committee agreed to support Wessell’s request for one more year, provided the committee broadened its scope to include issues of conflict resolution and prevention in its manifest national, social, cultural, racial, and religious forms. In subsequent months, the committee broadened its mandate but made no change in its name.

Relations with the International Social Sciences Council

A new structure was adopted for ISSC at its last Assembly meeting, allowing three kinds of members: (1) Member Associations—non-governmental international social and behavioral science associations such as IUPsyS; (2) Member Organizations—national social science councils and corresponding sections of national academies; and (3) Associate Members—international and national non-governmental social science professional organizations, such as the International Association of Applied Psychology. d’Ydewalle announced that he had been re-elected to the Executive Committee of the ISSC, where he could represent psychology as a major influence on future policy and program decisions of ISSC.

Nilsson reported that a related, though independent, group, the International Committee on Social Science Information and Documentation (ICSSID), had thus far neglected to include psychology as a central part of its programs on bibliographic directories.

Relations with the International Council of Scientific Unions

Both Pawlik and d’Ydewalle were the Union’s representatives to the ICSU General Assembly that met every 3 years, and Pawlik served on the General Committee of ICSU that met annually. As a member of the Bioscience Group, and with the expected admission later in 1993 of the International Brain Research Organization and the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences as new ICSU members with close ties to psychology, IUPsyS could be expected to play a larger future role in major ICSU projects. One of ICSU’s projects, the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA), involved psychology. Nilsson, the Union’s representative to CODATA, reported on their last meeting and stated that IUPsyS could become more active in two areas—management of large databases and environmental and global change.

Relations with UNESCO

A new UNESCO program entitled “Management of Social Transformation” (MOST) presented the Union with an opportunity to draft several new proposals. Kagitcibasi and Sinha agreed to prepare a proposal for funding on the management of change in multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society contexts. Imada, Ardila, Abou-Hatab, and Gelman agreed to prepare a proposal on city contexts, and a proposal dealing with the problems of coping locally with economic and technological transformation was chosen by Pawlik as his responsibility. d’Ydewalle incorporated the several texts into a more comprehensive one entitled Psychological Perspective on the Management of Social Transformations which was sent to UNESCO and circulated widely. Denis agreed to serve as the Union’s official representative to UNESCO.

Other international collaborations and regional development

After considerable discussion of how the Union could help psychology in newly independent Eastern European nations, a special Presidential Task Force to Promote East-West Relationships was formed comprised of Strelau, Blackman, d’Ydewalle, and Pawlik. The main objective of the task force was to provide guidance to emerging national psychology associations of Eastern Europe concerning how they should organize and the kind of petition they must submit if they wish to become members of the Union.

Regional congresses

Regional congresses to be held under Union auspices were also discussed as a means of encouraging different regions to strengthen scientific psychology. Such congresses were expected to be primarily limited to a defined geographic region and to deal with topics of special regional significance. The Executive Committee approved a new regional congress dealing with psychology and social development in the Asian and Pacific region to be held in Guangzhou, China, in 1995. At meetings of the Executive Committee in 1995, following conferences between officers of the Union and of the International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP), an agreement was reached that primary sponsorship of regional congresses should be alternated between the IUPsyS and the IAAP, with the other organization cooperating where appropriate. The Asian-Pacific Regional Congress of Psychology, under IUPsyS sponsorship with the full cooperation of IAAP and IACCP, would be the first of many officially sponsored, regional congresses to come in the future.

Advanced Research Training Seminars

Kagitcibasi announced that three seminars were being organized to take place in July 1994 close to the time of the International Congress of Applied Congress in Madrid, provided that funding could be obtained. Two of the three were actually held, with the majority of participants from developing countries. One was held on July 28–August 3 under the leadership of Lutz Eckensberger in Saarbrücken, Germany, on Eco-Thinking from a Cross-Cultural Perspective, funded by the Volkswagen Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Culture of the Saarland, and the University of the Saarland. Thirty-two participants were present, most of whom went on to the Applied Congress in Madrid. The second ARTS, led by Kagitcibasi with the help of Sevda Bekman and Banu Oney, was held on July 29–August 3 in Istanbul, Turkey, on Human Development and Assessment, funded by the Bernard van Leer Foundation, the Mother-Child Education Foundation, the Turkish Ministry of Culture, and Bogazici University. Twenty-nine participants from 12 different countries participated (Kagitcibasi, 1995 ).

Planning for the 1996 congress

A primary reason for convening the Executive Committee meetings in Montréal was the opportunity to meet with the congress organizers to discuss preliminary plans. In addition to Bélanger, who had been appointed President of the forthcoming congress and Sabourin who agreed to head the congress Organizing Committee, other officers present from Canada were Pierre Ritchie, Secretary-General; John Adair, Chairman of the Scientific Program and Scientific Publications Committee, and Laurier Forget, Director of Congres Services for the Canadian National Research Council.

Planning followed closely the pattern of pre-congress activity that had proved successful in the past. The first formal announcement was to be mailed in fall 1993. A Scientific Advisory Council and seven subcommittees had been appointed to manage various sections of the scientific program. Over 250 suggestions for symposia and a similar number of suggestions for invited speakers had already been received. Scheduled for August 16–22, the 1996 congress could handle 42 to 56 presentations per hour of paper sessions, organized topically, permitting an appropriate number of coordinated social hours to be held as well. A common problem yet to be worked out was the timing of submissions and subsequent notifications of acceptance sufficiently early to permit participants to obtain travel funds from local sources.

A practice established for the planning of the International Congresses has been to include a recent or current member of the IUPsyS Executive Committee, knowledgeable about the congresses, as a member of the congress organizing committee. Mark Rosenzweig served this liaison function on the Montréal Congress Council, participating in its meetings and corresponding with its officers.

As always, costs for participants would be an important factor determining the number of psychologists who could attend, particularly from developing countries very distant from Canada. The Canadian National Research Council proposed a novel approach to this problem in the future. Any deficit from the congress would be covered completely by the Canadian NRC. Any surplus would be shared by the NRC and the Union as follows: the first US$10,000 would go to the Union to repay seed money advanced by the Union. The next US$20,000 would be shared equally by the NRC and the Union. Two-thirds of any additional surplus would go the the Union, leaving one third for NRC. Half of the Union’s share of the surplus would be placed under the control of the Canadian Psychological Association and dedicated to Canadian projects related to international psychology.

Executive Committee and Assembly meetings, Madrid 1994

The Executive Committee held its 1994 meetings in Madrid, July 14–17, in conjunction with the International Congress of Applied Psychology, a previous custom that had become a tradition with the added advantage that a non-voting meeting of the IUPsyS Assembly could also be held at the same time. All members were present. Others attending various parts of the meeting included François Doré, the new editor of the International Journal of Psychology; Bélanger, Ritchie, and Adair, representing the organizers of the Montréal congress; Marina Manthouli and James Georgas, Presidents of the Fourth European Congress of Psychology; and two representatives of the Union’s publisher, Rohays Perry and Paul Dukes of Lawrence Erlbaum UK.

Expansion of the Union and further globalization of its reach continued at the same time as strengthening and consolidation of gains in Europe and North America were occurring. Two new national members representing Chile and Malta had been approved by mail ballot of the Assembly and were expected to attend the Madrid meeting of the Assembly. The Presidential Task Force on Eastern Europe was actively assisting psychologists in newly independent nations of Eastern Europe to organize and to petition for Union membership. The European Congresses initiated by the European Federation of Professional Psychologists Associations (EFPPA) were beginning to attract academically based scientists, and plans were being developed to transform the organization into a European association to which all qualified psychologists in Europe would be welcome. The determination of the Union to foster the development of regionally based, international meetings continued to yield promising results. For example, the Fourth European Congress, to be held in Athens in 1995 under the joint auspices of IUPsyS, IAAP, and EFPPA, would be the first to involve representatives of the Union’s European National Members as active participants. Overmier’s electronic communication system, known as IUPsySX, was also making communication among the Executive Committee members far easier than in the past.

Other good news conveyed by the Treasurer at the meeting concerned the achievement of a healthy budget surplus for 1993 of US$24,855, substantially more than originally anticipated. The Executive Committee approved distribution of the surplus as follows: (1) an advance loan of US$10,000 to the Montréal congress Organizing Committee; (2) a grant of US$5000 to help support the regional conference in China in 1995; (3) US$1000 for the bibliographic project under Imada’s leadership on psychology throughout the world; and US$5000 to the Union’s Reserve Fund, leaving the remainder as a current, small contingency fund. As in the past, US$12,000 in funds from the 1994 budget were allocated on a modest basis to the existing, ongoing projects, leaving a small remainder for additional expenditures that would have to be approved in advance by the Finance Committee. Clearly, the Union was in better financial shape than ever before, but it still had to be careful to limit expenditures. If the Union were to maintain this good financial state in the future, it was believed that the dues of national members would have to be increased by at least 25% by the Assembly at the Montréal congress or the expanding program and responsibilities of the Union would have to be sharply curtailed.

As agreed upon in 1993, each of the major committees met the day before the formal Executive Committee meetings to discuss their progress and plans and to formulate any recommendations for consideration by the entire group.

Communication and publications

Doré, the new editor of the Journal, reported that psychologists from 25 countries submitted 97 manuscripts in 1993. In 1994 the number dropped to 79 manuscripts from 21 countries, but was expected to pick up again in 1995. The excessive publication lag in 1993, due in part to many Special Issues in 1992, had dropped in 1994 to a normal 8–10 months. The Executive Committee approved a policy change to incorporate formally at least one Special Issue per year, noting that such issues often attract large sales when properly advertized. Following the successful model employed for the Brussels congress, the Executive Committee agreed that a double issue of the Journal containing abstracts of papers to be presented at the Montréal congress should be published just prior to the congress in 1996. It was recognized that a larger format for the Journal to accommodate the large number of abstracts would be highly desirable. Lawrence Erlbaum UK agreed as publisher to print 6 issues of approximately 100 pages each in large format, beginning with Volume 31 in 1996.

The IUPsyS Directory of Major Research Institutes and Departments had attracted sufficient interest since its publication in 1993 to justify consideration of a second edition. Overmier agreed to be editor of the revised Directory, and the publisher approved the plan to set a target date of mid-1996 for its publication—perhaps in time for distribution at the Montréal congress. By dropping individual names from the Directory and concentrating on institutes and departments, the project was made more manageable.

One of the problems concerning international journals brought out in the discussion was the fact that English-language journals published in the United States dominate psychological science. And yet, only rarely do they include articles or have editorial board members from other countries, especially those where other languages are employed. Pawlik proposed, and others agreed, that special efforts should be made to “internationalize” what are essentially national journals since psychological science knows no geographic boundaries. Gelman pointed out that the Committee on International Relations in Psychology of APA has already endorsed such an internationalization proposal, and Overmier added that the APA Publications and Communications Board acted to endorse this idea at its June 1994 meeting. But in the last analysis, such decisions still require the full cooperation of journal editors, who have the final say on the appointment of board members and the acceptance or rejection of submitted articles.

Research and special projects

Nilsson reported that at the committee’s meeting the previous day, each of the six projects or networks was judged to be continuing in a highly active and successful mode in spite of minimal funding. The International Network on Terminology and Classification of Concepts in Cognitive Science that he chaired, for example, had completed a first analysis of terms used for indexing articles on cognitive processes in the 1987–92 CD-ROM version of Psychological Abstracts. Pairs of concepts were then used as input to a clustering routine that links each term by its strongest pair. A map representing the resulting cluster structure of index terms was constructed using a MDS program that takes a matrix of co-occurrences as inputs and then yields the coordinates for a two-dimensional, best-fitting solution to the input matrix. Most of the international networks had developed plans to present symposia on their activities at the Montréal congress (d’Ydewalle, 1995 ).

As Gelman reported, the US National Committee for IUPsyS had been developing plans for a conference it would sponsor just prior to the Montréal congress. This international conference would address the life-span development of careers in science and technology and would involve major contributions by well-known psychologists, many of whom would then participate in the Montréal congress. The plan was enthusiastically endorsed by the Executive Committee, recognizing that the development of scientific and technical competencies and careers was an issue of concern to both ICSU and ISSC. Rosenzweig mentioned that a second workshop by the US National Committee was being planned devoted to the ethical and social consequences of future drugs that affect memory and intelligence. This plan was also strongly endorsed by the Executive Committee.

Relations with ICSU

Relations with ICSU had grown at a steady pace over the previous year. A new priority had been established within ICSU focusing upon brain research and issues of animal research, two areas of special interest to psychology, arousing interest in the possibility of new initiatives in partnership with other disciplines within the Biosciences Group of ICSU. Jing was nominated to the Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries, Strelau agreed to represent the Union at an ICSU Symposium on Ethics in Science, d’Ydewalle agreed to represent the Union at the forthcoming General Assembly of CODATA, and Peter Johnson of the UK planned to participate in a CODATAsymposium on mental models and representations.

Before adjourning, the Executive Committee reviewed and approved once again plans for the Montréal congress, preliminary organization and plans for the Stockholm congress in 2000, and plans for the Asian-Pacific Regional Congress to be held in Guangzhou, China, August 28–30, 1995. The importance of this first IUPsyS-sponsored regional congress and the invitation of the Chinese Psychological Society to host the 28th International Congress of Psychology in 2004 convinced the Executive Committee that their 1995 meeting should be held in Guangzhou at the time of the regional congress.

Assembly meeting

Following the Executive Committee meetings, an informal session of the Union’s Assembly met with 48 representatives of 29 countries present to exchange information about the latest activities of the Union and its national members.

Executive Committee and the Asian-Pacific Congress, Guangzhou 1995

The Executive Committee held its 1995 meeting with all members but Rosenzweig present in Guangzhou, China, on August 23–27, 1995, in conjunction with the IUPsyS-sponsored Regional Asian-Pacific Congress. The budget for 1995 was similar to that for 1994, although the funding policies of ISSC and ICSU had changed from small direct subsidies of a general nature to the awarding of grants for specific projects submitted by member organizations. The Executive Committee distributed internal funds totaling US$12,500 in small amounts among 10 projects and networks, including three new ones—the Cognitive Bases of Education, the final reporting of the Ethical Codes, and the organizing of an IUPsyS Homepage on the World Wide Web. The largest amounts were given for the International Network Project on Psychological Dimensions of Global Change (US$3000) and the 1996 ARTS (US$2600). Earmarked grants of UNESCO money funneled through ISSC and ICSU accounted for approximately one third of the budget.

Photograph taken at the Asian-Pacific Regional Conference of Psychology, Guangzhou, China, August, 1995—From left to right: Dr Houcan Zhang* (China), Dr Bruce Overmier* (USA), Dr Joan Bazar (USA), Dr Qicheng Jing (China; former members of the IUPsysS Executive Committee and designated as President of the 2004 International Congress of Psychology), Setsuko Imada (Japan), Dr. Hiroshi Imada* (Japan), Dr. Michel Denis* (France), and Maryvonne Carfantan (France). *Members of the IUPsyS Executive Commmittee.

Concerns about delinquent members

Considerable discussion was held regarding the relatively large number of national members who had failed to pay their annual dues or who were going through major transformations. Among the members in arrears for 2 or more years were Brazil, the Dominican Republic, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Panama, the Philippines, and Italy. Serious questions were raised as to whether the associations presumably representing psychologists in India, Brazil, and Italy were either moribund or no longer representative of the most active psychologists. Special efforts would have to be made to determine the nature of these difficulties, to resolve them if possible, and to recommend appropriate action to the Assembly at its 1996 meeting.

New members

Three new members were approved by mail ballot of the Assembly—the Croatian Psychological Association, the Slovenian Psychological Association, and the Vietnam Association of Psycho-Pedagogical Sciences. In a similar manner, the European Association of Psychological Assessment was approved as a new affiliated organization. After reviewing new petitions, the Executive Committee recommended for mail ballot that four additional societies—the Bangladesh Psychological Association, the Russian Psychological Society, the Moroccan Association of Psychological Studies, and the Irish Psychological Society—be admitted as new national members of the Union.

Communication and publications

Pawlik presented a new proposal to compile and publish an international reference work, tentatively titled International Handbook of Psychological Science, to be edited by Pawlik and Rosenzweig. Sage Publishing Company had already informally agreed to publish and distribute the handbook, leaving open the rights for foreign language editions. Since Sage had offered 10% royalty payments to the Union as well as an advance of £12,500, the Executive Committee enthusiastically endorsed the project and urged the editors to move forward with the plan.

Efforts to strengthen communication with national members as well the general public led to the creation by d’Ydewalle of an electronic homepage for the Union on the World Wide Web. Related was the notable success of the electronic network established by Overmier called IUPsySX for communication among members of the Executive Committee.

Research and special projects

Written reports by project directors stimulated extensive discussion on how projects could be made more relevant to the Union’s members and how more such members might be attracted to join Union-sponsored activities. Unfortunately, readily available funds have always been severely limited for starting up new projects, requiring special voluntary efforts by the initiator. Most projects thrive only because of strong individual initiative and external funding. Nevertheless, one new project proposed by Gelman for studying the Cognitive Bases of Education was approved. She proposed that a casebook be developed to advance the role of psychology as a basis of science education, perhaps with the involvement of Ardila and Abou-Hatab from the Executive Committee and of Giyoo Hatano and Houcan Zhang from Japan and China, respectively. The tiny sum of US$300 was approved to help her get started.

Three other projects aside from those presented by the Committee on Research and Special Projects were also reviewed. Imada reported on progress of the projected Bibliography of Psychology Around the World with a series of recommendations as to how to proceed. Overmier reported on his survey of national member codes of ethics. And it was announced that a manuscript by Wessells on the work of the Committee for the Psychological Study of Peace was completed.

Relations with ISSC

The relations of the Union with ISSC had begun to improve once again. At the last ISSC Assembly meeting d’Ydewalle was elected Vice-President and a new Secretary-General, Leszek Kosinski, was appointed. Kosinski was familiar with IUPsyS and had already improved the financial circumstances at ISSC by major reductions in staff. The announcement of new funding priorities at UNESCO provided an opportunity for the Union to propose new projects to ISSC for support. Proposals submitted by the Union covered such topics as social integration in southern Africa; urban problems and the status of psychology in the developing world, particularly Asia; dealing with poverty and social integration by focusing upon child rearing practices of women with low socioeconomic status; the perception and assessment of global environmental change; and exchange and communication among national scientific organizations of psychology.

Other cooperative activities

After brief reports of ongoing relations with ICSU, WHO, and UNESCO, a Pan-Arab Regional Conference of Psychology was proposed by Abou-Hatab, to be held in 1999. The Executive Committee approved the plan. The highly successful Fourth European Congress of Psychology held in Athens in July 1995 encouraged the Executive Committee to initiate joint efforts with the European Federation of Professional Psychologists Associations and IAAP to develop a forum of European organizations. Afirst step would be for the officers of the three organizations to plan a workshop of European behavioral scientists for the purpose of promoting European psychological science and research, especially in Eastern Europe.

Asian-Pacific Regional Conference, Guangzhou 1995

The first of what was hoped to be the forerunner of a series of regional congresses was held the week following the Executive Committee meetings. Co-sponsors included IAAP, the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, and nine national psychological associations. Focusing on psychology and social development in the region, 173 papers were presented, 9 keynote speeches were given by distinguished psychologists from different countries, and 4 special symposia were organized by the 3 international co-sponsors.

Forthcoming International Congresses of Psychology

With only a year to go, final preparations for the 26th International Congress of Psychology were presented by Hogan and Sabourin, who reviewed the scientific program, special events for young psychologists, ceremonial events, housing, exhibits, and advance publication of abstracts, pointing out that travel grants and congress assistance program totaled US$80,000 of much-needed support. Considerable progress was reported by Nilsson on plans for the 2000 congress in Stockholm. The budget of 4,000,000 Skr was based on a registration fee of only 2600 Skr, assuming over 6000 participants. Nearly half of the necessary funds had already been acquired and marketing was underway. In addition to an invitation to hold the 28th congress in China in 2004, Ardila, Abou-Hatab, and Kagitcibasi announced that invitations would probably be forthcoming from Colombia, Egypt, and Turkey as well. Formal invitations would be welcomed at the Assembly meetings in 1996, where a final decision would be made.


d’Ydewalle, G. (1995). Annual report for 1994 of the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS). International Journal of Psychology, 30, 762–768.

Kagitcibasi, C. (1995). Final report on ARTS, 1994. International Journal of Psychology, 30, 507–509.