By the end of the 24th International Congress of Psychology in Australia, it was apparent that a genuine global expansion of international psychology had been achieved. Not only had there been highly successful world congresses of psychology in Asia, Latin America, and the far reaches of the South Pacific, but the subsequent years following each congress were characterized by the involvement of psychologists from new national member societies representing the nations of the developing world where modern scientifically based psychology had more recently taken root. These changes were also gradually evident not only in the Assembly but also in the composition of the elected Executive Committee members who were responsible for carrying out the programs and policies of the Union.
Most of the Executive Committee meetings and the next three world congresses of psychological science sponsored by the Union were held in familiar settings within Europe and North America where previous IUPS congresses had been held earlier in the century. This move permitted the Union to build upon existing strengths in psychology and to consolidate the major gains of the past several decades. At the same time, vigorous efforts were made to strengthen ties with psychologists from the less well-developed countries of the world and to encourage additional Union membership from Asia, Latin America, and Africa. By the early 1990s, with the end of the Cold War involving the Soviet Union and the United States as primary antagonists, major political, economic, and social changes occurred in Eastern Europe that resulted in the breakup of the Soviet Union and the creation of new nation-states, as well as the restoration of former ones. The decade of the 1990s would see new petitions for IUPsyS membership from states that were formerly part of the Soviet Union, in addition to an increase in membership petitions from countries of the Third World.
The next three congresses were held in Western Europe and Canada. An important goal for the first of these congresses, the 25th International Congress of Psychology in Belgium, was the cross-area communication of the latest scientific findings in emerging specialized areas of psychology. The rapid expansion and specialization of theory and research in psychology had led to a situation where few, if any, psychologists could keep up with the latest developments, especially across different languages and countries. The next three meetings of the Executive Committee were focused upon these important issues as well as new publications, the expansion of projects and special interest networks, and the development of advanced research training workshops to be held as satellite meetings immediately prior to the international congress.
The 1989 meeting of the Executive Committee was held in Brussels on July 1621, under the generous auspices of the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research, one of the sponsors of the forthcoming international congress. A major consideration was the review of plans for the 1992 congress. In addition to Géry dYdewalle, key members of the Belgian Task Group who attended the Executive Committee meeting were Paul Bertelson, Piet J. Janssen, and Leni Verhofstadt-Deneve. The different kinds of scientific activities being planned were described, together with a timetable for invitations and announcements, a tentative budget for the congress, and an overview of expected satellite conferences. Following a visit to the proposed site of the congress and an inspection of the facilities, the Executive Committee expressed its approval of the plans and thanked the Task Group for the advanced and well-organized state of their planning.
Several suggestions were also made for organizing advanced training workshops in conjunction with the 1992 Belgian congress. Kagitcibasi and dYdewalle agreed to contact departments of psychology in neighboring countries as well as the affiliate members of the Union, such as the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP), while Pawlik would submit workshop proposals to ICSU, especially to obtain travel funds for psychologists from developing countries. Their efforts elicited an enthusiastic response from psychologists at universities in four cities of Germany and The Netherlands, which offered to host workshops. Ype Poortinga, University of Tilburg and current President of IACCP, agreed to coordinate the planning of the seminars.
By 1991, US$12,000 was obtained from UNESCO for supporting the seminars, to which sum was added generous support from Finland, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, making it possible to hold two ARTS. Held on July 25August 1, 1992 in Berlin, one ARTS was led by Ute Schönpflug and Klaus Boehnke. The ARTS was devoted to Life Span Development from a Cross-Cultural Perspective and was attended by 33 psychologists, 15 of whom were from less affluent countries and received financial support. Held at the same time, the Tilburg seminar on Coping with Adverse Conditions was led by Guus van Heck and Fons van de Vijver and was comprised of 14 psychologists, all but 1 of whom were from economically poor countries. Primarily from disadvantaged nations, these participants could then go earlier to the International Congress in Brussels immediately before the ARTS. Both ARTS were declared highly successful, and the 1992 Assembly in Brussels voted to continue the ARTS as a featured satellite program at future international congresses.
Advance preparations were also announced for the 26th International Congress of Psychology to be held in Montréal, Canada. The Executive Committee approved the nomination by the Canadians of David Bélanger as President of the congress, as well as the proposed financial agreement involving support of the congress by the National Research Council of Canada. A contractual agreement was established with the National Research Council that involved a sharing of the surplus, if any, as well as an understanding that any deficit would be completely covered by the Council.
The 1990 meeting of the Executive Committee was held in Kyoto, Japan, on July 1922, in conjunction with the 22nd International Congress of Applied Psychology. A meeting of the Unions Assembly was also held at the time of the congress for the purpose of exchanging information with members who could be present.
Negotiations by Holtzman, Pawlik, and dYdewalle with North-Holland/Elsevier Publishers at the time of contract renewal for the Journal proved unsatisfactory, and efforts were made to find a more attractive publisher. The best proposal was received from Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd, UK, which contained several advantages for the Union: (1) a substantial increase in royalties, particularly on sales of Special Issues; (2) reimbursement of secretarial expenses for the editor; and (3) much lower subscription prices for individuals while providing a more attractive plan for subscriptions using non-convertible currency and from Third World countries, as well as for bulk purchase of 100 subscriptions by the Union.
Clause 18 of the former contract with North-Holland created a problem that required delicate negotiation before the transfer could be completed. In the same manner as the price paid by North-Holland to Dunod in 1979, this clause provided that reasonable compensation was due North-Holland for transfer of the subscription list and the stock of back volumes of the Journal to a new publisher. North-Hollands charge of US$44,000 in fulfillment of Clause 18 was negotiated down to US$25,000, all of which was paid by Erlbaum UK, including US$12,500 to be charged against future royalties due the Union. The Executive Committee formally approved the new contract once agreement was reached among the three parties, and henceforth Erlbaum UK, known after 1996 as Psychology Press, has been the publisher.
Under the editorship of Sabourin since 1988, publication lag of the main scientific section of the Journal was reduced to 5.5 months by 1992, the number of manuscripts submitted from 30 different countries had increased to 121 by 1992, several Special Issues had been published under guest editors, and the Consulting Editorial Board had been expanded. Started by dYdewalle in December 1981 while he was editor, Special Issues have been a successful way of focusing on timely topics of international interest by appointing a guest editor who solicits appropriate articles on the chosen topic. Special Issues have the added value of being marketable as single numbers of the Journal, the royalties of which flow back to the Unions treasury.
The Platform Section of the Journal, under the leadership of dYdewalle and Pawlik as associate editors, continued to publish reports, national activities, brief notes, and special articles of a timely international nature. The most successful of these regular features has been the calendar of international congresses and scientific meetings that first appeared in 1987 when the American Psychologist discontinued its international calendar.
When the Executive Committee met in Berkeley, California, on August 1923, the international networks of special interest groups, the relationships of the Union with ICSU, ISSC, WHO, and UNESCO, the communication and publication activities of the Union, and plans for the international congress in Belgium a year later were all developing very well. Moreover, the financial health of the Union had improved considerably after passage of the new dues structure and category system for members that was adopted in 1988 at the 24th International Congress of Psychology in Australia. By 1991, the total annual budget had grown to US$62,000, about one half of which was devoted to projects while the remainder helped cover administrative expenses of the Union. A reserve fund of approximately twice the annual budget had also been built up to cover unforeseen emergencies in the future.
Given the sound condition of the Unions finances and considering his long term of service to the Union, Bélanger announced that he was planning to retire after 15 years as Treasurer of the Union at the end of the 1992 congress. Similarly, Pawlik stated that he would be stepping down after 8 years as Secretary-General after the Brussels congress, and Sabourin said he would be resigning upon completion of a 4-year term as editor of the Journal the end of 1992. Both Past-Presidents of the Union, Klix and Holtzman, would also be leaving the Executive Committee in 1992. Clearly, 1992 would be a water-shed year concerning the turnover of leadership within the IUPsyS.
Search for a new editor for the International Journal of Psychology began immediately. The editor must have a wide knowledge of current psychological science, previous editorial experience, a working knowledge of English and French, and an ability to deal effectively with a diversity of authors as well as the publisher. After numerous exchanges and several interviews, Jean Pailhous, CNRS, Marseilles, France, and editor of the European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology, was selected as the person who appeared to possess all of the desirable qualities and was willing to devote himself to this demanding task. As agreed upon in the negotiations, pending manuscripts for the Bulletin were merged with those of the Journal, beginning with Volume 28 (1993) of the Journal, to the advantage of readers of both journals. Unfortunately, the merger proved unsuccessful, and, at its 1993 meeting, the Executive Committee had to dissolve the merger and appoint a new editor.
In addition to extensive discussion of continuing issues and future plans, in 1991 the Executive Committee adopted a new logo for its stationery and publications. It also agreed that the changing times and successful globalization of psychology compelled the Union reluctantly to drop its requirement that French be an official language, while retaining English, in all future congresses of IUPsyS. Although French would obviously be the second language of choice for the next two international congresses in Brussels and Montréal, where French was a native language, in Sweden and other countries where future congresses would be held, requiring French for all international congresses placed too heavy a burden for simultaneous translation upon the congress organizers. Henceforth, only two languages would be required, English and the host countrys national language, although additional languages could certainly be adopted if the congress organizers chose to add them and provisions were made for the necessary simultaneous translation. This decision applied only to the quadrennial congresses and not to other activities of the Union, such as the International Journal of Psychology, which continued to encourage articles in either of two official languages, English or French.
International projects initiated or supported by the Union usually involved networks of like-minded psychologists with a member of the Executive Committee serving as the organizer/chairman/coordinator or at least as a key member of the special interest group. Financial support from Union funds for such networks was always nominal, generally ranging from US$500 to US$1500. Occasionally a project director was successful in obtaining more substantial funding elsewhere once the network was established. By the time of the 1992 international congress, the following networks were actively under way:
Young Child and the Family Environment. Formerly the International Network of Human Development and Child Research Centers dating back to 1984 under Wayne Holtzman, the creation of the UNESCO Project on the Young Child and the Family Environment and its collaboration with IUPsyS led to a realignment of this interest group with Cigdem Kagitcibasi as the coordinator. The network continued to operate under the joint auspices of the Union and its affiliate, ISSBD.
Two other projects under the auspices of the Union during the 4 years between the Australian and Belgian congresses deserve brief mention. The first was a study fostered by the Standing Committee on the Development of Psychology as a Science and as a Profession under the chairmanship of Hiroshi Azuma. A questionnaire survey was carried out by Mary Nixon of Monash University, Australia, to identify in universities of countries which were members of the Union the minimum requirements and course content for training psychologists. After much effort and some uncertainty regarding the meaning of responses received from 23 national members of IUPsyS, a preliminary manuscript was circulated and a symposium on the subject was organized for the Belgian congress.
The second project involved the Committee for the Psychological Study of Peace, which had its origins in a symposium organized by Adolph Kossakowski at the 1980 International Congress of Psychology in Leipzig. Kossakowski remained as Chairman of the committee until 1991, and in 1988 Martii Takala was appointed Vice-Chairman, thereby assuring a closer linkage to the Executive Committee. A reorganization of the committee in 1992 resulted in Michael G. Wessells of the United States being named as interim Chairman. Under Kossakowski and Takala, the committee prepared an international directory of scientists active in research on the psychological aspects of peace. Several symposia were sponsored at different international conferences, the latest of which at that time was the Second International Symposium on Contributions of Psychology to Peace that took place in Jena, Germany, on September 1618, 1991 (Boehnke & Frindte, 1992 ).
New publications also appeared under the auspices of the Union just prior to the Belgian congress. Noteworthy is the Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology (published by Hunan Educational Publishers; Jing, 1991 ), partially funded by the Union, which was compiled by Qicheng Jing as general editor and an editorial board of 11 Chinese psychologists. Written in Chinese, the book has 2800 entries covering the main areas of psychology, descriptions of psychology in different countries, and brief biographies of important psychologists from across the world. At the end of the book are indexes of English, Chinese, and Japanese terms, as well as indexes of English, Chinese, and Russian biographical names.
A second book under the auspices of the Union during this period was International Psychological Science: Progress, Problems, and Prospects. Edited by Mark Rosenzweig (1992) and published by the American Psychological Association, the book contains nine chapters, two dealing with the nature of psychological science and resources for conducting it around the world and seven covering key scientific advances in psychology on topics ranging from the neural bases of learning and memory to psychotherapy.
A third IUPsyS book, completed in 1992, that appeared a year after the Belgian congress was the IUPsyS Directory of Major Research Institutes and Departments of Psychology, edited by Géry dYdewalle (1993) . After several years of surveys, a large database was compiled concerning institutions throughout the world that were active in research and advanced training in psychological science, forming the basis for the Directory. Rather than try to compile and publish a fifth edition of an international directory containing entries for individual psychologists, a task that proved to be impractical due to the high mobility of psychologists and the great expansion of psychology throughout the world in the previous two decades, a directory dealing with institutions was deemed more appropriate. Even this new directory could hardly claim to be truly comprehensive, since the field was changing rapidly and some institutions were omitted due to lack of response to the surveys. It was expected that subsequent editions of the Directory would be more inclusive as the omissions became apparent.
The 25th International Congress of Psychology was held in Brussels, Belgium, on July 1924, 1992. Géry dYdewalle and Paul Bertelson served as Co-presidents. Organization of the congress followed traditional lines established by previous congresses. The Scientific Program Committee consisted of nine Belgians with Marc Richelle as Chair. Géry dYdewalle was chairman of the 12-member Management Committee. Paul Bertelson was Chairman of the overall Executive Board, which consisted of the chairmen of all the committees plus the current and immediate Past-Presidents of the Belgian Psychological Society and the IUPsyS liaison, Germaine de Montmollin. A Scientific Advisory Board of nearly 80 additional Belgian psychologists completed the organizational plan.
Wide international participation in the congress was fostered in several ways. The Scientific Program Committee invited psychologists from many countries and made sure that symposia included members from several different countries. Funds were obtained from several sources so that those psychologists from the developing countries and from Eastern Europe who requested financial aid could receive exemption from the registration fee. Free or inexpensive accommodations were provided for a large number of psychologists who requested help. Over 4000 individuals from 70 countries attended the congress, a record number.
|Géry dYdewalle: Co-president of the 25th International Congress of Psychology, Brussels, 1992. He became Secretary-General of the IUPsyS (19921996), and then President of the IUPsyS (19962000). |
For the first time, abstracts of the keynote addresses, state-of-the-art lectures, and all the papers to be presented at the Congress were published just in advance of the Congress as a special issue of the International Journal of Psychology, Volume 27, Issues 3 and 4, June/August 1992. The book was made possible by the diligence and efficiency of the Belgian Scientific Program Committee, by the journal editors, and by excellent cooperation from the publisher, Erlbaum UK. In addition to 3785 abstracts, the book contained a brief report of the IUPsyS Committee on Communication and Publications, the Annual Report of IUPsyS, and a Directory of the Unions national members. Afinal section of the book was devoted to abstracts of special sessions organized under the IUPsySan open forum and round-table for journal editors and 8 thematic sessions totaling 50 individual presentations sponsored by the Unions research and special project networks. It was an impressive publication, running to 694 pages, that provided a ready reference for congress participants as well as a permanent archive summarizing the scientific content of the congress.
Altogether, the main scientific program consisted of 13 keynote addresses by distinguished scientists, 22 state-of-the-art lectures highlighting the latest research findings in selected areas, 129 symposia, 115 thematic sessions of individual papers, and 123 interactive poster sessions. Following the congress, 10 of the keynote addresses were published in Volume 1 (Bertelson, Eelen, & dYdewalle, 1994 ) of a two-volume seriesfive by Americans and one each from five other countries. Volume 2 contained 18 of the state-of-the-art lectures (dYdewalle, Eelen, & Bertelson, 1994 )8 by American authors, 2 each by British and German authors, and 1 each by psychologists from Colombia, Italy, Israel, Poland, Sweden, and France. These two volumes focused primarily on experimental, laboratory-based research, with a heavy emphasis on cognition. But when combined with the Special Issue of the Journal containing abstracts of all the presentations, a thorough account of international perspectives on psychological science in the early 1990s was given.
|Paul Bertelson: Co-president of the 25th International Congress of Psychology, Brussels. |
The Unions Assembly met during the congress on two occasions, July 21 and 23, to hear reports, act upon recommendations from the Executive Committee and national member delegates, to conduct the two-stage election process for new officers to lead the Union until the Montréal congress in 1996, and to consider new business. Four new national members were admitted to the Unionthe Union of Estonian Psychologists, the Hellenic Psychological Society, initially representing Greece with the proviso that the representation would be changed shortly to a new National Committee of Psychology, the Portuguese Society of Psychology, and the Singapore Psychological Societybringing the total number of national members to 51. In addition, representation from Colombia was changed from the Colombian Federation of Psychology to the Colombian National Committee of Psychology. Both Greece and Colombia followed in the footsteps of several other countries by forming a National Committee representative of two or more psychological societies as the Union member. In addition, the European Association of Personality Psychology was welcomed as a new affiliate member, bringing the number of affiliates to nine.
The Assembly formally accepted the invitation by the Swedish Psychological Association to hold the 27th International Congress of Psychology in Stockholm in the year 2000. In other action, the Assembly approved the Executive Committees recommendation that a permanent legal venue be established in Montréal, with the understanding that the Société du centre de conférences internationales de Montréal, a non-profit organization founded by the federal and provincial governments of Canada and the city of Montréal, would provide the Union with office space and support staff for at least 2 years, in addition to conference facilities, general assistance, and advice.
Consistent with the above action, Article 4 of the Statutes was amended to read, the Union has a legal venue in Montréal.
A second recommended change in the Statutes was also approved by the Assembly. Although the change to a category system at the 1988 Assembly meetings had produced a necessary increase in income, there were still some minor problems resulting from having only eight categories for dues payment. Several members had expressed a preference for a finer grading in the number of units offered and a higher top category. Article 8 of the Statutes was amended to contain 13 categories rather than only 8. The value of one unit was still maintained at US$100, and the top Category M was raised to 100 units, a sum of US$10,000 per year for the United States, the only country in the top category. Category 0 was still used to designate observer status only, with no annual dues. Category D (10 units) and above allowed two voting delegates in the Assembly, and Categories A, B, and C permitted only one delegate.
Pawlik was elected President of the Union for the next 4 years. Jing and Nilsson were elected Vice-Presidents. New members elected to the Executive Committee were Michel Denis, University of Paris, France; Hiroshi Imada, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan; D. E. Blackman, University of Cardiff, UK; Jan Strelau, University of Warsaw, Poland; Rubén Ardila, National University of Colombia, Bogota; and F. A.-L. H. Abou-Hatab, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, joining Gelman, Hogan, Kagitcibasi, and Sinha who were re-elected for another four-year term.
|Kurt Pawlik: Secretary-General of the IUPsyS (19841992) and later President of the IUPsyS (19921996). |
At a subsequent organizational meeting immediately following the Brussels Congress, the new Executive Committee appointed dYdewalle and Sabourin as Secretary-General and Treasurer, respectively. Later in the year, Bruce Overmier, University of Minnesota, was appointed Deputy Secretary-General, completing the Executive Committee membership until the next international congress in 1996. The following were named as chairmen of the three standing committees: Rosenzweig, Communication and Publications; Nilsson, Research and Special Projects; and Imada, Development of Psychology as a Science and as a Profession. As established earlier, the Budget Committee was comprised of the President, the Treasurer, and the Secretary-General. Kagitcibasi agreed to coordinate planning for the next Advanced Research Training Seminars to be held in 1994 in conjunction with the International Congress of Applied Psychology in Madrid.
Other leading appointments by the new Executive Committee concerned the chairmen of the several working groups and special interest networks. The Communication Research Project was upgraded to a Working Group with Nilsson as Chairman. The International Networks had the following persons appointed to head them: Kagitcibasi, Young Child and the Family Environment; Sinha, Psychology and the Third World; Pawlik, Psychological Dimensions of Global Change; Hogan, Healthnet; and Nilsson, Taxonomy and Classification. Denis agreed to develop a new initiative on cognitive science, and decisions concerning the psychological study of peace were deferred pending further consultation.
|Executive Committee (19921996) at the International Congress of Psychology, Brussels, 1992From left to right: Derek Blackman, Michel Denis, Lars-Göran Nilsson, Cigdem Kagitcibasi, David Bélanger (1992), Mark Rosenzweig, Kurt Pawlik, Fouad Abou-Hatab, Michel Sabourin (19931996), Géry dYdewalle, Jan Strelau, Qicheng Jing, and Hiroshi Imada. Durganand Sinha is missing from the picture (being the photographer), as are Rubén Ardila, Rochel Gelman, Terrence Hogan, and Bruce Overmier. |
|Michel Sabourin: Treasurer of the IUPsyS (1993). |
Pawlik was named as the Unions delegate to ICSU; Denis and Pawlik were chosen as official delegates to ISSC, joining dYdewalle who was already a member of the ISSC Executive Committee, and Hogan was named the Unions representative to WHO while dYdwalle agreed to be liaison to EFPPA.
The Executive Committee took note of national member recommendations that the Union help organize more regional scientific meetings, promote more discussion on the teaching of psychology, expand the international exchange of information, and provide better communication to the public at large. As a first step, Ardila proposed that a regional meeting be organized at the time of the 24th Interamerican Congress of Psychology in Santiago, Chile.
With the success of the 25th congress in Brussels, the expanding program activities as reported to the Assembly, and the strong support of the Assembly for actions that greatly strengthened both the global reach and the firm scientific base of the Union, it was apparent that the International Union of Psychological Science had become a mature organization with a permanent office and a bright future.
Bertelson, P., Eelen, P., & dYdewalle, G. (Eds.) (1994). International perspectives on psychological science Vol. 1: Leading themes. Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd.
Boehnke, K., & Frindte, W. (1992). Report of the second international symposium on contributions of psychology to peace. International Journal of Psychology, 27, 258260.
dYdewalle, G. (Ed.) (1993). IUPsyS directory of major research institutes and departments of psychology. Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd.
dYdewalle, G., Eelen, P., & Bertelson, P. (Eds.) (1994). International perspectives on psychological science, Vol. 2: The state of the art. Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd.
Jing, Q. (Ed.) (1991). Concise encyclopedia of psychology. Hunan, China: Hunan Educational Publishers.
Pawlik, K. (Ed.) (1991). The psychological dimensions of global change. Special Issue of the International Journal of Psychology, 26, 545673.
Rosenzweig, M.R. (Ed.) (1992). International psychological science: Progress, problems, and prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Sinha, D. (1992). IUPsyS international network of psychology and the developing world. International Journal of Psychology, 27, 508.