Chapter 12

Continued initiatives in the globalization of psychology (1984–1988)

Final plans for the 23rd International Congress of Psychology to be held in Acapulco, Mexico, in early September 1984 were presented by Diaz-Guerrero to the rest of the Executive Committee for discussion at their meetings in 1982 and 1983. Preliminary plans for the 1988 congress to be held in Sydney, Australia, were outlined by Taft, who stated that the Australians would have to raise $300,000 by 1986 in order to hold 3,000 hotel rooms for the congress. A meeting of the Executive Committee in Sydney, Australia, on August 28–September 1, 1983, at the same time that the Australian Psychological Society was holding its annual meeting, was made possible by a generous travel subsidy from the Australians. In return for the travel grant of US$11,383, the members of the Executive Committee gave major presentations, participated in social receptions, and held conversation hours with Australian psychologists as a featured part of the society’s meeting.

A special joint session of the Executive Committee and the Australian Congress Planning Committee, as well as a tour of the congress facilities under construction, proved very advantageous to both groups. Many questions arose that could easily be settled in conference. Australia would be celebrating its national bicentennial throughout 1988, and many international conferences were being planned for the new facilities that had not yet been constructed.

The 23rd International Congress of Psychology, Acapulco, Mexico 1984

The 23rd International Congress of Psychology was held in Acapulco, Mexico, September 2–7, 1984, the first time that a psychological congress of this magnitude had ever been held in Latin America. The occasion was a challenging one for the members of the Mexican Society of Psychology, but they carried it off well in spite of a number of crises arising from financial difficulties. The Mexicans had counted on substantial government support, only a small part of which was forthcoming due to a severe economic depression and currency collapse that hit Mexico in the early 1980s. The organizers had to rely almost entirely on registration fees to support the congress. Difficulties in communications and delays in advance registration created considerable anxiety among the congress organizers, who revised their budget downward to the low level of US$156,000, requiring fewer than 2300 registrants to break even financially. Rogelio Diaz-Guerrero was President of the congress, Graciela Rodriguez served as Chairman of the Organizing Committee, Isabel Reyes was Secretary-General, and Juan José Sanchez-Sosa was Chairman of the Program Committee—all senior professors at the National University of Mexico who were dependent largely upon hundreds of volunteers to organize and host the congress. Fortunately, nearly 3200 individuals participated in the congress.


Rogelio Diaz-Guerrero: President of the 23rd International Congress of Psychology, Acapulco, 1984.

The scientific program consisted of 17 invited lectures, 77 symposia (several with additional discussion sessions), 98 thematic sessions with an average of 10 papers each, 10 thematic sessions of the young psychologists program with an average of 8 papers in each, 18 workshops, and 24 sessions of special interest meetings. Although previous congresses had encouraged other international groups to hold special interest meetings at the congress, the number of such satellite meetings at the 1984 congress was impressive. Among the groups holding such meetings at the congress were the International Society of Comparative Psychology, the International Test Commission, the International Network for Child Development, the Experimental and Animal Behavior Section of the International Union of Biological Sciences, the Division of Environmental Psychology of the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the Cheiron Society for the History of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Most of the sessions were held in the Acapulco Convention Center while others were held in nearby hotels.






Presidium of the opening ceremony at the 1984 Congress in Acapulco, Mexico. From left to right: Friedhart Klix, Union President; Cervantes-Delgado representing the Governor of the Mexican State of Guerrero; Guillermo Soberon, Mexican Minister of Health representing the President of Mexico; Darvelio Castano, Dean of the School of Psychology at the National University of Mexico; Wayne Holtzman, Secretary General of the Union; and Salvador Malo, Director for Scientific Research at the Ministry of Education.

The presentations covered almost every field of scientific and applied psychology as well as the theory and history of psychology. Within the area of experimental psychology there was special emphasis on neuropsychology of cognition and information processing, sensation and perception, ocular movements in learning, motivation, and psycholinguistics. A great many contributions of an applied nature were concerned with topics of health psychology, peace psychology, assessment, psychotherapy, and with advances in clinical, educational, and organizational psychology, as well as problems of labor and social psychology.

Publication of the congress proceedings followed a different plan from that used in the past. Major presentations, individual papers, and symposia were organized under the overall editorship of Diaz-Guerrero, Holtzman, and Rosenzweig in a series of nine books, each containing a relatively homogeneous set of contributions, published by North-Holland in 1985. Each book was organized and edited by one or two well-known psychologists who attended the congress. The areas covered by the nine books and their editors were as follows:

New officers


Wayne H. Holtzman: Secretary-General of the IUPsyS (1972–1984), and later President of the IUPsyS (1984–1988).

The Union’s Assembly met on two afternoons, September 4 and 6, to hold elections and conduct other business. A total of 72 voting representatives from 36 countries were present at one or both sessions. After 12 years as Secretary-General, Holtzman retired and was elected President. Diaz-Guerrero and Lomov were elected Vice-Presidents. Qicheng C. Jing (Institute of Psychology, Chinese National Academy of Science) was elected as a new member of the Executive Committee, joined by Azuma, Durojaiye, d’Ydewalle, Klix, Montmollin, Rosenzweig, Sinha, Taft, and Takala who were re-elected.

Revision of the Statutes to accommodate a different kind of national member

Revision of the Statutes and Rules of Procedure to change the dues structure and amount (Statutes II–8 and Rules II–1) and to permit a different kind of national member (Statutes II–6 and 7) proved to be important items of business for the Assembly. As a member of the US National Academy of Sciences, Rosenzweig had been sounding out his colleagues concerning the desirability of following the lead of all the other scientific organizations represented in the Academy: by having the national member of the Union from the United States be the US National Academy of Sciences, rather than the American Psychological Association (APA). The Academy then would appoint psychologists to a new US National Committee for IUPsyS who were drawn from slates of distinguished psychologists nominated by the several leading psychological associations in the United States. Funded in part by the Academy, the National Committee would designate two of its members to represent American psychological science as delegates to the Union’s Assembly. Since because of its large size the APA would have the right to nominate a majority of the committee’s founding members, it graciously consented in advance to relinquish its role as the national member of the Union. Moreover, under the proposed new dues structure for IUPsyS, APA would have had to pay a substantially larger amount of dues each year, a prospect that would be eliminated by the new plan since the National Academy of Sciences would be responsible for the dues.

The stage had been carefully set in advance so that no opposition was encountered when the Assembly was asked to approve Statutes 6 and 7. Shortly thereafter, the US National Academy of Sciences became the official national member as the APA stepped down (Rosenzweig & Flattau, 1988 ). Getting the Academy to become a national member of the Union required successive actions that were carefully coordinated. The Union had to change its Statutes, the APA had to agree to the exchange, and the Academy had to agree to become the Union’s national member with its National Committee serving as its active representative in the Union. Fortunately, Rosenzweig was in a key position to aid in these steps as a member of the Union’s Executive Committee, of the APA Council, and of the US National Academy of Sciences. At about the same time, a Canadian National Committee for Psychology was formed by the Canadian National Research Council and accepted as Canada’s national member by the Union.

Only very few countries have thus far taken advantage of this new idea. Nevertheless, the plan has proved to be highly valuable in those countries where the change has taken place. Not only has it been a useful mechanism for involving more than one national psychological organization in IUPsyS affairs, but it has also resulted in substantially increased support for international initiatives in psychology by assuring the support of prestigious national science academies for special projects. A variation of the US plan with some of the same advantages has been adopted by Belgium (Nuttin, 1986 ) and Sweden (Nilsson, 1988 ). In each case, a National Committee of Psychology has been formed under the Royal Academy of Sciences. The committee appoints delegates to the IUPsyS Assembly from the national society of psychology that still retains its official membership in the Union. This plan works well where there is only one recognized major national society of psychology.

At the 1984 Assembly meetings, the Nicaraguan Association of Psychology was admitted to the Union as its 45th member, and the International Society for Comparative Psychology was approved as a new affiliate of the Union. Of several attractive invitations received, the Assembly voted to hold the 1992 congress in Brussels, Belgium.

The Union’s Executive Committee met on two occasions in Acapulco, the outgoing one on September 1–2 when most of the Union’s business was discussed just prior to the congress, and the newly elected one late on September 7 for organizational purposes only. Klix invited all members to participate in the Ebbinghaus Symposium, July 1–6, 1985, at Humboldt University, Berlin, a symposium that he had organized with IUPsyS encouragement following the Leipzig Congress (Klix & Hagendorf, 1985 ). One of a series of special international conferences held in the German Democratic Republic, this symposium reviewed current trends in the psychophysics of cognitive processes, organizational principles of human memory, mechanisms underlying intelligence, and related topics in honor of the pioneering experimental work of Hermann Ebbinghaus on memory in Berlin 100 years earlier.

Relations established with the World Health Organization

A new project was announced by Holtzman involving collaboration between IUPsyS and the Division of Mental Health, World Health Organization (WHO), in Geneva. Stimulated initially by an invitation received from Norman Sartorius, a psychologist/psychiatrist serving as Director of Mental Health for WHO, the project involved a comprehensive review of roles and functions of psychologists in the provision of health care, in teaching in health care settings, and in health-related research in different countries throughout the world. With minor financial support and good cooperation from many psychologists, a report on this project was first published by WHO (Holtzman, Evans, Kennedy, & Iscoe, 1987 ) and then reprinted and translated elsewhere to insure wide international circulation among public health officers as well as psychologists. The publication spawned a new IUPsyS Network on Health Psychology that still continues to operate.

Continued relations with UNESCO, ISSC, and ICSU

Interest in the support of IUPsyS projects by the other three primary international agencies, UNESCO, ISSC, and ICSU, continued to grow. The International Network of Child Research Centers was gradually being taken over by the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, the MACINTER program on cognition and computers received financial support from ICSU, and three new interdisciplinary initiatives were getting underway, two with ISSC and one with ICSU. The small group of psychologists under Finnish and German leadership who were concerned with promoting psychological research on international peace joined forces with like-minded social scientists under a broader ISSC mandate. A related development occurred at ICSU, when Arthur Summerfield was invited to represent IUPsyS as a member of the ICSU Committee on the Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War. And finally, still another opportunity for psychology opened up with ISSC support of a new interdisciplinary study of Youth, Employment, and Technological Change. The mid-1980s proved to be a time of vigorous expansion of research and special projects under the leadership of the IUPsyS Executive Committee, leading to a new era of international collaboration among psychologists.

Executive Committee meeting, Austin 1985

The 1985 meetings of the Executive Committee were held in Austin, Texas, on August 29–31, at the Hogg Foundation for Mental Health, The University of Texas, with partial subsidy of meeting expenses by the Foundation. Robert Farr, London School of Economics and Political Science, was appointed Deputy Secretary-General, completing the roster of psychologists on the Executive Committee. As Deputy Secretary-General, he also served as co-editor, together with Pawlik, of the Platform Section for the International Journal of Psychology. Rosenzweig was reappointed Chairman of the Committee on Communication and Publications, with the three Journal editors—d’Ydewalle, Pawlik, and Farr—as members.

Guidelines for new projects

As Chairman of the Committee on Research and Special Projects, Klix proposed, and the Executive Committee adopted, guidelines for the promotion of new projects based on three goals: (1) To develop the exchange of ideas and scientific information among psychologists in different countries; (2) to aid scholars or graduate students in different countries to go abroad to work at universities and laboratories; and (3) to cooperate with other international and national organizations, especially within interdisciplinary research projects of WHO, ISSC, and ICSU. Based upon these guidelines, five international network projects and their coordinators were approved for modest funding from IUPsyS funds for one year: Child Research Centers (Holtzman); Man-Computer Interaction (Klix); Behavioral Ecology/Environmental Psychology (Pawlik); Psychology in the Third World (Sinha); and Cognitive Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Neuroscience (d’Ydewalle).

Relations between IUPsyS and both ICSU and ISSC had settled down somewhat in the past year with greater involvement of the Union in the two international organizations. Klaus Helkama of Finland represented the Union on the ISSC peace project and Taft served as liaison to the ISSC project, Youth, Employment, and Technological Change. Pawlik and d’Ydewalle agreed to serve as official representatives to the ISSC General Assembly. In addition, d’Ydewalle was elected Chairman of the International Committee on Social Sciences Information and Documentation. With respect to ICSU, Klix participated in the Ottawa Symposium on Global Change as well as the Ringberg Conference in Europe dealing with ICSU policies, Pawlik was a participant in the SCOPE project, and Roger Russell served on the steering committee for the International Biosciences Network.

Subvention funds from ISSC and ICSU continued as in the past in spite of serious budget cuts at UNESCO. This strengthened relationship between IUPsyS and both ICSU and ISSC was due largely to closer attention to global concerns in project planning. A better understanding between the Union and all three Paris-based international organizations was achieved by a series of informal meetings between officers of the Union and leaders of UNESCO, ISSC, and ICSU that were held in Paris on March 13–16, 1985.

A final report on the 1984 Acapulco congress revealed that the Mexican Organizing Committee produced a net profit of approximately $10,500 in spite of initial fears of a deficit. In view of the heavy responsibilities and stringent cost-saving efforts of the understaffed Organizing Committee, the Executive Committee approved a request by the Mexican Society of Psychology to allocate these funds for the purpose of obtaining permanent offices in Mexico City for the society’s headquarters. Detailed plans for the 1988 congress in Australia and advance planning for the 1992 congress in Belgium were approved as presented by Taft and d’Ydewalle, respectively.

Assembly and Executive Meetings, Jerusalem and Zurich 1986

Jerusalem

A meeting of the Union’s Assembly for the purpose of information exchange took place on July 15, 1986, in Jerusalem, Israel, in conjunction with the International Congress of Applied Psychology. Reports of Union activities since the 1984 Assembly meetings and plans for forthcoming project activities and international congresses formed the basis for discussion by the 26 Assembly members present.

Zurich

Immediately following the International Congress of Applied Psychology, the Executive Committee met in Zurich, Switzerland on July 19–23. The committee’s meeting was joined by Ronald King and Barry Fallon, Chairman of the Organizing Committee and Treasurer, respectively, for the 1988 congress to be held in Sydney, Australia. Norman Sartorius, Director of the WHO Division of Mental Health, was also present part of the time to discuss ways in which the relationship between WHO and the Union could be strengthened.

Preparations for the Sydney congress

An extensive written report on the organizational and current state of preparations for the 1988 congress, augmented by the commentary of King and Fallon, led to a detailed discussion that comprised a major part of the meetings. A Congress Management Committee was formed consisting of the eight primary executives ranging from President and Secretary-General to Marketing Director. The policy-setting International Congress Committee was comprised of the Management Committee plus nine additional psychologists, including Taft as a member of the Union’s Executive Committee and Roger Russell as IUPsyS liaison. Fallon presented a detailed budget based upon the assumption that at least 2000 participants would be needed to break even financially, given a registration fee of US$170–200. It was assumed that registration fees would comprise 85% of the needed income, the remainder coming from a variety of other sources. In addition to invited speakers and a wide range of symposia, three kinds of individual presentations would be noted on the printed program—individual papers presented in thematic sessions, interactive poster sessions, and announcements of prepared papers to be handed out.

It was anticipated that travel expenses for most participants would be unusually high due to the great distance to Australia from Europe, America, and much of Asia. Special efforts were made to organize satellite scientific meetings of a topical nature for which travel might be at least partially covered by national sponsors. Of particular note was the special effort by Roger Russell, Holtzman, and the US National Committee for IUPsyS under the chairmanship of Rosenzweig to organize a major international conference on behavioral toxicology that was held just prior to the Sydney congress at the Australian National University in Canberra. This conference enabled a number of psychologists to obtain travel support to Australia from funds provided to the US National Commission by its parent organization, the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in the United States. The behavioral toxicology conference required nearly 3 years of advance planning to be successful. Papers presented at the Canberra conference were subsequently published by the US National Academy of Sciences (Russell, Flattau, & Pope, 1990 ).

Non-payment of dues, a persistent problem

The collection of dues from members continued to be a difficult problem in spite of the change in Statutes approved in 1984. The Psychological Society of Ireland was threatening to drop its membership due its inability to pay the required dues, and seven other national members were in danger of being dropped for non-payment of dues over the previous 2 years. Moreover, several national societies had apparently reduced their dues payment by claiming fewer individual members than they actually possessed. Clearly, it was again time for more changes in the Statutes and in the Rules and Procedures for governing such matters, and a special ad hoc committee was formed under the chairmanship of Bélanger to investigate the issue and recommend additional refinements to the 1988 Assembly.

Most scientific unions in ICSU had adopted a category system of members for the purpose of paying dues. Thus was born the idea for IUPsyS of a category system of national members based on the number of individual psychologists represented, carrying with it a designation of the number of authorized voting delegates, from zero to two, permitted within the Assembly. Anon-paying national member would only be allowed a non-voting observer in Assembly meetings but would still retain its official membership in the Union. Based upon a dues unit value of $100 for 100 individual psychologists, the 8 categories ranged from Category 0 with no voting delegate; through Categories A (1 unit), B (3 units), C (5 units), and D (10 units) with one delegate; to Categories E (30 units), F (50 units), and G (80 units) with two delegates. The plan was circulated to all Assembly members and approved by the Assembly at its next meeting in Sydney during the 1988 Australian congress. The complete Statutes and Rules of Procedure as adopted by the 1988 Assembly were then published in the International Journal of Psychology (1989).

Expansion of Union publications

With financial assistance from the American Psychological Association, a new brochure was produced by Rosenzweig in 1986 describing IUPsyS, the main activities of the Union, publications, affiliate organizations, Union membership, and officers. The brochure was widely distributed. National societies were encouraged to reproduce, translate, and re-publish the brochure on their own in the hope that many more psychologists throughout the world would thereby have a better appreciation of the Union and its activities on behalf of psychology.

Other publications under the Committee on Communication and Publications were also reviewed. Arrangements were made with North-Holland Publishers for shortening the delay in publishing news items in the Platform Section of the International Journal of Psychology. National members were encouraged to appoint special correspondents charged with providing the associate editor with timely news items for the Platform Section, but with only limited success.

For the main body of the Journal, d’Ydewalle reported that from mid-1985 until mid-1986, 140 manuscripts had been submitted of which 36 were published, the average publication lag being reduced to 10 months. d’Ydewalle announced his intention to step down as editor in one more year. By the time he had finished his term as editor, d’Ydewalle had succeeded in reducing the publication lag to less than 6 months. In his last year as editor, 143 manuscripts from 30 different countries were reviewed, 46 were published, and 3 Special Issues were published, a notable improvement in less than 1 year. Michel Sabourin, University of Montréal, was nominated in 1987 as his replacement and served as the new editor of the Journal beginning with the first issue in 1988.

The Union’s role in mental health

After reviewing the progress of research and special projects initiated under the auspices of the Union, the Executive Committee listened with considerable interest to an overview of WHO developments in mental health that was presented by Norman Sartorius. He emphasized three areas of special concern to psychologists: (1) the classical problems of mental health such as mental illness and drug abuse; (2) potential contributions of psychologists to health care; and (3) the psychological aspects of major social adjustments such as the resettlement of refugee families. Sartorius emphasized that WHO was now beginning to stress the application of the behavioral sciences to general health as well as mental health. Sartorius’ encouragement, together with publication of the findings of the recent IUPsyS project on psychology and health in several journals including the International Journal of Psychology (Holtzman et al., 1987 ) led to the formation of a new Committee on Psychology and Health, with Holtzman as Chairman, to collaborate with the WHO Division of Mental Health in promoting an international network of health psychology.

A revised application for membership in the Union was received from the Egyptian Association for Psychological Studies and was approved by the Executive Committee for preliminary review and comment by all Union members. The application was then formally submitted in 1986 to the Assembly for mail ballot, resulting in official approval of the Egyptian Society as a reinstated member of IUPsyS. (Egypt had originally been admitted as a member in 1951 but became inactive shortly thereafter.) The same procedure was employed for the Pakistan Psychological Association, which was approved by mail ballot in 1987. Preliminary petitions from Greece and Costa Rica were judged not yet ready for formal review, and advice was given their psychologists concerning what must be done to meet the standards for membership in the Union.

A major new Asian initiative, the Executive Committee meeting in China 1987

The 1987 meetings of the Executive Committee were held in Beijing, China, on September 14–17, and in Hangzhou on September 20, thanks to a welcome invitation from the Chinese Psychological Society, one of the newest members of the Union. In return for partial subsidy of the meeting expenses, members of the Executive Committee gave lectures at meetings of the Chinese Psychological Society in Hangzhou. Farr expressed his wish to resign for personal reasons as Deputy Secretary-General, and d’Ydewalle agreed to accept an appointment as his successor. Guests for the meeting were Michel Sabourin, the new editor of the Journal, and Ronald King, Chairman of the Organizing Committee for the 1988 Australian Congress.

The number of project proposals from various sources under consideration for possible Union support had grown to such an extent that a set of guidelines concerning applications for international projects, as proposed by Klix, was reviewed and adopted. The guidelines consisted of eight principles to be followed in preparing proposals of projects to be initiated or supported by IUPsyS, how they should be established, their management, their termination and the necessary tendering of accounts. Even where little or no funds from IUPsyS were involved, official sponsorship by IUPsyS was a serious matter that should be granted sparingly. The eight principles adopted were as follows:

  1. An application for a project should be presented in writing to the Secretary-General 3 months before the forthcoming session of the IUPsyS Executive Committee, and copies should be forwarded to the members of the Executive Committee who are invited to send their comments to both the Secretary-General and the Chairman of the Committee on Research and Special Projects.
  2. The application should specify the project’s aims and the basic procedures to be employed; it should also include details as to the institutions and/or research groups to be included.
  3. The description of the project should, when relevant, include information concerning international bodies (e.g., UNESCO, WHO) or major projects of other scholarly associations (e.g., ISSC, ICSU, IFFSO) with which the project can be coordinated or related.
  4. If interdisciplinary activities are suggested, relations with other scientific fields should be stated and justified. Existing agreements with other scientific associations concerning the project are welcome.
  5. The applications should specify the time at which results will be reported and the forms of publication (e.g., research reports, books, symposia, or conferences). In general, a brief progress report should be given every 2 years to the members of the IUPsyS Executive Committee. In the intervening 2 years, a comprehensive report should be given to the Secretary-General.
  6. The Union’s own research funds should be used mainly as “seed money” to help initiate projects. This support should not be given for a period longer than 4 years. When the coordinator wishes to continue the project under sponsorship of the Union beyond the 4-year period without Union funding, the coordinator must apply every 2 years for approval. Continuation of sponsorship depends upon progress.
  7. A statement of costs should be presented specifying the amount of funds expected to be given by IUPsyS as well the financial support anticipated from other scientific institutions, societies, and/or governmental bodies. It should also contain information concerning financial gains, if any, to be returned to IUPsyS. Evidence of support for the project by other institutions would be commendable.
  8. A project must be relevant to the aims of the Union.

Application of these guidelines to existing, ongoing projects led to the following decisions by the Executive Committee: Human Development and Child Research (4th year, Holtzman)—continued for one more year as a collaborative effort with UNESCO and the International Society for Behavioral Development; Man-Machine Interaction Research (5th year, Klix)—continued IUPsyS sponsorship but no further funding; Behavioral Ecology/Environmental Psychology (2nd year, Pawlik)—funding approved with recommendation that it be implemented by establishing a task force for the ICSU International Geosphere-Biosphere Program; Psychology in the Third World (2nd year, Sinha)—funding approved; Cognitive Science, Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience (2nd year, d’Ydewalle)—funding approved; Communication Studies (2nd year, Lomov)—funding approved; Psychology and Health (lst year, Holtzman)—funding approved; Chinese-English Dictionary (new, Jing)—funding approved.

In each of the approved projects, funding ranged from zero to US$2000 from the small IUPsyS budget, primarily subvention funds from ISSC and ICSU, most amounts being US$1000 or less for the 1987–88 year, barely enough to carry on network communications or plan for conferences where other funding is involved.

Several other activities were encouraged but considered unready for formal sponsorship or funding. The ad hoc group under Finnish leadership dealing with peace was urged to plan a specific international research project on peace and the avoidance of nuclear war, keeping in mind ISSC’s continuing interest in the same topic. Azuma was asked to explore the possibility of a new standing committee on how the Union could contribute more effectively to the development of psychology as both a science and a profession in countries where there has been considerable lag in such developments. Aspecial committee was formed for this purpose, consisting of Azuma as Chairman and Diaz-Guerrero, Pawlik, and Taft as members.

The Standing Committee on International Exchange of Scholars and Students had not been active since the 1984 congress. A small related study by Rosenzweig to determine the views of national societies in collaborating to produce an International Roster of Experts, an initiative that had been encouraged by ISSC and ICSU, revealed little interest and the project was dropped. A much larger project, the possible gathering of new information on tens of thousands of individual psychologists, exclusive of the United States, for a fifth edition of the International Directory of Psychologists, loomed as a more important issue that had to be decided no later than the 1988 Sydney congress. The current fourth edition had been highly acclaimed, but the explosive growth of psychology since it had been compiled made the task a formidable one, and financial support was uncertain.

The newly formed European Federation of Professional Psychologists Associations (EFPPA) was viewed by the Executive Committee with much interest and some concern since one of its mandates was to consider ways of improving, recognizing, and possibly standardizing professional training programs, codes of ethics, and professional services by psychologists throughout Europe. While generally viewed as positive, the long-range impact of EFPPA’s initiatives upon training and research in psychological science was unclear. Secretary-General Pawlik met with officers of EFPPA and arranged for regular communication between the Union, EFPPA, and IAAP as well as with the associated organizers of the proposed 1st European Congress of Psychology to be held in 1988.

The 24th International Congress of Psychology, Sydney, Australia, 1988

The 24th International Congress of Psychology was held in Sydney, Australia, on August 28–September 2, 1988, with a total of 2600 individual and symposium contributions covering all areas of psychology, plus an additional 38 workshops and a series of satellite conferences. Peter W. Sheehan was President of the Congress. The Union had taken another major step in the progressive globalization of psychology by holding the International Congress of Psychology for the first time in the southern hemisphere. Over 4000 individuals participated as delegates or accompanying persons from 50 different countries. The opening session was held in the beautiful new opera house on the harbor, with a full complement of national dignitaries present as well as most of the psychologists attending the congress. After a brief welcome by IUPsyS President Holtzman, several short addresses by Australians and musical entertainment, the congress adjourned to the opera house foyer for a reception.


Venue of the 24th International Congress of Psychology, Sydney, 1988.

Peter W. Sheehan: President of the 24th International Congress of Psychology, Sydney, 1988.

In the final weeks before the Congress opened, the organizers were under considerable stress due to delays in construction of the highly anticipated, new convention center where nearly all of the scientific sessions were to be held. Australia was straining to accommodate all the international activities and conferences associated with its bicentennial celebrations in 1988, and the International Congress of Psychology was one of its most prestigious events. Drastic steps were taken and the congress barely opened on time, much to the relief of the overworked organizers!

Patterned after previously successful programs at earlier International Congresses, the Young Psychologists Program in Sydney was noteworthy, and parts of the program with keynote speakers were well mixed with the program involving the young psychologists. Although the congress was a complete success in most respects, a slight financial deficit of about US$5000 was incurred after paying back the loan from IUPsyS received by the Australian organizers for start-up purposes several years earlier.

A large number of papers presented at the congress that were judged to be of high quality were published and distributed in nine volumes similar to the plan adopted following the Mexican congress. Requiring camera-ready copy facilitated the work. Publication of the nine books by North-Holland within the year following the congress was a major accomplishment, given the large number of individual authors and the magnitude of the editorial task. An Executive Editorial Committee comprised of six Australians supervised the editorial work. An 11-man Publication Management Board consisting of both Australians and members of the Union’s Executive Committee provided general oversight. Syd H. Lovibond served as general editor of the series. Editors of each of the individual books, together with the substantive areas covered, were as follows:

The Union’s Assembly met on two occasions, August 30 and September 1, with 63 voting members from 30 countries present at one or both of the sessions. Five affiliated organizations were also represented and nine observers attended. Delegates from two new national members, the Indonesian Psychologists Association and the Nigerian Psychological Association, were welcomed to join the Assembly once the petitions for membership received from their associations were approved as a first order of business, bringing the total number of national members in the Union to 50. The Royal Society, the UK Academy of Science, was approved as the successor to the British Psychological Society as the national member from the United Kingdom, following in the footsteps of the Americans and Canadians, with the British National Committee of Psychological Science serving as the UK Academy’s representative in IUPsyS.

The Assembly approved the proposed revisions in the Statutes and Rules of Procedure, including the change to a category system of representation in the Assembly and of dues payment, and authorizing the immediate Past-President to be a voting member of the Executive Committee. The Assembly endorsed the continuation of the international network projects as well as the appointment of a new Committee for the Psychological Study of Peace. Based upon the recommendations of Azuma’s special committee, a third standing committee was established, the Committee on Development of Psychology as a Science and Profession.

New officers

Mark Rosenzweig was elected President of the Union for the next 4 years. Hiroshi Azuma and Martti Takala were elected Vice-Presidents. Five former Executive Committee members were re-elected—Diaz-Guerrero, Jing, Klix, Lomov, and Sinha. The five new members elected to the Executive Committee were Rochel Gelman, University of Pennsylvania; Terrence P. Hogan, University of Manitoba, Canada; Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Bogazici University, Turkey; Lars-Göran Nilsson, University of Umea, Sweden; and Peter Sheehan, University of Queensland, Australia. Under the newly approved Statutes, as immediate Past-President, Holtzman continued on the Executive Committee for one more term.


Mark R. Rosenzweig: President of the IUPsyS (1988–1992).

Before adjourning, the Assembly also heard from a Belgian task group headed by d’Ydewalle concerning preliminary plans for the next international congress to be held in Brussels, approved an invitation from Canada to hold the 1996 congress in Montréal, and received an invitation from Sweden to consider Stockholm for the international congress in 2000.

The outgoing Executive Committee met on August 26–28 just prior to the congress to hear reports from the standing committees and the project coordinators, to review matters for consideration by the Assembly, to consider new petitions for membership, and to seek ways of improving the financial condition of the Union. Reduced subventions from ICSU and ISSC, the continued failure of some national members to pay their annual dues, and the major travel expenses incurred as a result of holding the Executive Committee in Australia put an unusual strain on the budget, making it necessary to draw upon the Union’s small Reserve Fund kept for emergencies or to reduce IUPsyS funding of research and special projects.



The new Executive Committee met primarily for organizational purposes on September 3, reappointing Pawlik, d’Ydewalle, and Bélanger as Secretary-General, Deputy Secretary-General, and Treasurer, respectively. After serving continuously since 1972 as Chairman of Communication and Publications, Rosenzweig took office as President of the Union and Holtzman was appointed in his place as Chairman of Communication and Publications. Klix continued as Chairman of the Committee on Research and Special Projects, and Azuma was appointed Chairman of the third standing committee, the newly authorized Committee on Development of Psychology as a Science and a Profession. Adolph Kossakowski, German Democratic Republic, was appointed Chairman of the new Committee for Psychological Study of Peace with the understanding that no funds would be provided at this time, most of the Committee’s work being carried out by correspondence. Takala agreed to serve as Vice-Chairman and liaison between the Committee for the Psychological Study of Peace and the Executive Committee. Germaine de Montmollin was asked to be the Union’s official liaison to the 25th International Congress of Psychology to be in held in Brussels in 1992.

A major unsettled question concerned the feasibility of compiling and publishing a fifth edition of the International Directory of Psychologists. Many national societies were already periodically publishing directories of their members. Restricting the new directory to research psychologists in keeping with the primary focus of the Union upon psychological science would be one alternative to consider. Nevertheless, not only would it still be an expensive undertaking, but the problem of defining who is a research psychologist rather than a practitioner or counselor would require a great deal of cooperation and understanding among the growing number and diversity of member societies and the Union’s editorial board. A primary objective would be to produce a directory that could be sold for about US$25 by keeping it fairly simple and using modern computer technology.


Executive Committee members and journal editor at meeting in 1989 with Belgian officials to plan the 1992 Congress—From left to right: (front row) Géry d’Ydewalle, Rochel Gelman, Friedhart Klix, C.C. Jing, Hiroshi Azuma, Terrence Hogan, Mark Rosenzweig, Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Leni Verhofstadt-Denève (President, Belgian Psychological Society), Kurt Pawlik, (and in back) Peter Sheehan, David Bélanger, Belgian official, Durganand Sinha, Michel Sabourin, Martii Takala, Belgian official, Wayne Holtzman (missing from the photo are Executive Committee members Rogelio Diaz-Guerrero, Boris Lomov, and Lars-Göran Nilsson).

After obtaining the views of leaders within the member societies in 1989 and being discouraged by the responses, the Executive Committee at its next meeting in 1989 decided to postpone further action while reconsidering the task significantly and to focus on compiling an international directory of recognized psychological research centers and institutes, including their key scientists, rather than pursuing the much more difficult task of publishing a new directory of individual psychologists.


Key Union Officers (1988–1992)—From left: Géry d’Ydewalle, Kurt Pawlik, David Bélanger, and Mark Rosenzweig.

References

Holtzman, W.H., Evans, R.I., Kennedy, S., & Iscoe, I. (1987). Psychology and health: Contributions of psychology to the improvement of health and health care. International Journal of Psychology, 22, 221–227.

International Union of Psychological Science. (1989). Statutes and Rules of Procedure. International Journal of Psychology, 24, 217–236.

Klix, F., & Hagendorf, H. (Eds.) (1985). Human memory and cognitive capabilities: Symposium in memoriam Hermann Ebbinghaus, Vols. 1–2. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Nilsson, L.-G. (1988). The Swedish National Committee of Psychology. International Journal of Psychology, 23, 649–652.

Nuttin, J.R. (1986). The Belgian National Committee of Psychological Science. International Journal of Psychology, 21, 785–791.

Rosenzweig, M.R., & Flattau, P.E. (1988). The US National Committee for the International Union of Psychological Science. International Journal of Psychological Science, 23, 367–375.

Russell, R.W., Flattau, P.E., & Pope, A.M. (1990). Behavioral measures of neurotoxicity: Report of a symposium. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.