Chapter 11

The congresses return to Europe (1976–1982)

The 21st International Congress of Psychology, Paris, France, 1976

The Paris congress was held on July 18–25, 1976, and was attended by nearly 3000 psychologists and over 500 accompanying persons from 64 different countries. As President of the congress, Paul Fraisse joined IUPS President Joseph Nuttin, Vincent Bloch, President of the French Society of Psychology, and Robert Mallet, Chancellor of the University of Paris, in addressing the opening session of the 21st International Congress of Psychology, recalling the historic occasion of the 1st congress held in Paris in 1889 and pointing out the great progress made in psychology as a science in less than 100 years. A comparison of the scientific content and issues presented at international congresses prior to World War II with those of the 21st congress illustrates both the significant progress of scientific psychology in the past century and the changing nature of psychology. The maturity of basic psychological science together with the rapid emergence of professional and applied issues and topics of concern to developing countries throughout the world are clearly evident in the proceedings of the Paris congress of 1976 (French Society of Psychology, 1978 ).

In his opening address, following up on Russell’s theme at the Tokyo congress that psychology can and must contribute to the understanding and resolution of big issues facing the world, Nuttin emphasized the importance of psychologists actively participating at the highest levels of international and interdisciplinary planning and policy-making as well as scientific research.

The Organizing Committee for the Paris congress, led by Fraisse, covered everything from finances and public affairs to publications. The scientific program was developed by a committee of 19 French psychologists under J.F. Le Ny as chairman. As analyzed more recently by González Solaz (1998) in her doctoral dissertation on the International Congresses of Psychology from 1963 to 1984, the program consisted of 6 invited major lectures, 40 symposia on contemporary topics ranging from the physiological basis of learning and memory to artificial intelligence and behavioral pharmacology, 35 thematic sessions of individual papers, a series of films on child development, psychopathology, social psychology, and animal behavior, and a special session honoring Jean Piaget, the internationally distinguished Swiss psychologist, on his 80th birthday.

The six invited speakers and their topics present some of the thematic interests of the times as viewed by the French committee: T.G.R. Bower (University of Edinburgh): “Concepts of development”; Barbel Inhelder (University of Geneva): “From the structural approach to the procedural approach: Introduction to the study of strategies”; Hans-Lukas Teuber (Massachusetts Institute of Technology): “The brain and human behavior”; Donald A. Norman (University of California, San Diego): “The role of active memory processes in perception and cognition”; Georges Noizet (University of Provence): “Strategies in the treatment of phrases”; and René Zazzo (Psychobiological Laboratory of the Child, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris): “Brain and behavior”. A more complete picture of psychology can be obtained from the symposia presentations and hundreds of individual papers that comprise the bulk of the scientific program. The invited lectures were published in full, together with the titles and authors of other presentations, in the proceedings (French Society of Psychology, 1978 ).

Ethical standards in psychology

During the 2 years preceding the 1976 congress, the Secretary-General corresponded regularly with the Union’s national members concerning ethical standards and codes of conduct. The survey revealed that, while most societies were moving forward with discussion of appropriate codes of ethical standards, only a small number had actually adopted codes and were enforcing them. A special symposium was held at the Paris congress with a large, standing-room-only audience. Many in the audience were refugees from South American military oppression who demanded that psychology take a firm stand. Organized by Holtzman, the symposium was chaired by Otto Klineberg and had 14 speakers on a variety of ethical topics, including one by a Chilean refugee posing challenges to psychologists concerning techniques of torture used in Chile. Newspaper reports and television cameras were present, and some of the speeches were widely publicized, putting additional pressure on the IUPS Assembly to take some positive action.

The next day the Assembly debated the issues and finally passed a resolution proposed by Nuttin concerning professional ethics in psychology, taking into account the substance of a comprehensive Dutch proposal as well as an American proposal dealing with the misuse of psychiatric diagnosis to suppress political dissent. The final text of the resolution made reference to the United Nations Charter and to the 1975 UN Declaration on protection of all persons from being subjected to inhuman treatment (see Figure 11.1 ).

FIGURE 11.1
Resolutions approved by the IUPS Assembly, July 27, 1976, Paris
Keeping in view:

  1. That the International Union of Psychological Science is an association of national associations;
  2. That today its membership consists of 42 national associations from both developed and developing countries;
  3. That its annual operation expenses amount to approximately US$20,000, partially because of its continuing responsibilities to UNESCO and its affiliated organizations; the Assembly of IUPS hereby resolves that:
it is essential to maintain the UNESCO funding of ISSC from which funds are derived
for support of ongoing activities within IUPS; and requests that the member national
societies of IUPS approach their national governments through appropriate
organizations such as the National Commission to UNESCO, urging them to support
fully the program and budget of UNESCO at the forthcoming General Conference of
UNESCO in Nairobi.
The International Union of Psychological Science, which includes national psychological societies of 42 nations from all over the world; which thus speaks in the name of over 70,000 professional psychologists which, because the subject of their science is behavior, are particularly concerned with any acts by which individuals in a systematic and deliberate way infringe upon the inviolable rights of human beings, regardless of race, religion, or ideology, these rights being guaranteed by the Charter of the United Nations; and which is concerned with strict observance of professional standards of ethics in the practice of psychology, therefore makes the following declarations:
It proclaims that no psychologist, in the exercise of his or her professional functions,
should accept instructions or motivations that are inspired by considerations that are
foreign to the profession;
It protests solemnly against any use of scientific data or of professional methods of
psychology that impair the above-mentioned rights;
It formally condemns any collaboration by psychologists—whether actively or
passively, directly or indirectly—with the above-mentioned abuses, and it urges its
members to oppose any abuses of this sort;
It requests each member-society to make certain that it has enacted a code of ethics
and to take those actions required by its code against any member guilty of such
abuses against human rights;
It declares that the Executive Committee of IUPS is ready to support, with all means at
its disposal, any action undertaken by a member-society in order to carry out the
terms of the present resolution;

It recalls the following statement made by its Executive Committee on July 27, 1974:
The Executive Committee wishes to make clear that the International Union of
Psychological Science denounces vigorously all practices that are contrary to the high
level of morality that must regulate the scientific and professional roles assumed by
psychologists in modern society.

It welcomes the United Nation’s Resolution, adopted by the General Assembly (Third Committee: A/10408; 2423rd plenary meeting, 9 December 1975) on the Protection of All Persons from being subjected to Inhuman Treatment.
This Resolution was approved by a unanimous vote of the IUPS Assembly, Paris, July 22, 1976.

New officers of the Union


Arthur Summerfield: President of the IUPsyS (1976–1980).

Meetings of both the outgoing and incoming Executive Committees and two sessions of the Assembly for the Union were held during the Paris congress. A total of 69 voting delegates representing 36 countries attended one or both of the Assembly meetings, a record attendance. Summerfield was elected President, and Lomov and Rogelio Diaz-Guerrero, National University of Mexico, were elected Vice-Presidents. Following the newly approved Statutes and Rules of Procedure, new procedures were used for electing the first eight Executive Committee members from delegates of current national member societies and then electing two more at large from anywhere. This two-step method increases the likelihood that a qualified psychologist or two from countries not currently represented might be elected. And, indeed, that is how the elections worked out.







David Bélanger: Treasurer, IUPsyS, 1977–1992. Also, President of the 26th International Congress of Psychology, Montréal, 1996.

Michael O.I. Durojaiye, University of Lagos, Nigeria, joined Juan J. Guevara, University of Havana, Marianne Frankenhaeuser, University of Stockholm, and seven returning Executive Committee members—Fraisse, Klix, Nuttin, Rosenzweig, Russell, Tanaka, and Tomaszewski—to run the affairs of the Union. At their first meeting, Holtzman, Montmollin, and Mailloux were re-appointed as Secretary-General, Deputy Secretary-General, and Treasurer, respectively. With the announcement by Mailloux that he would retire after only one more year, the Executive Committee appointed his colleague at the University of Montréal, David Bélanger, as his replacement after retirement, thereby completing the committee for the next 4 years. Rosenzweig was reappointed chairman of the Committee on Communication and Publications, Diaz-Guerrero was appointed chairman of the Committee on International Exchange of Scholars and Students, and Nuttin was appointed chairman of a special committee to draft a plan for a new Committee for Research and Special Projects.






A necessary increase in dues

The Assembly also approved an increase in dues from US$20.00 to US$30.00 per membership unit, larger societies having a formula-based larger number of units in accordance with the revised Statutes and By-Laws. The Panamanian Association of Psychologists was approved as a new member, bringing the total number of member national societies to 42. Initially introduced to the Assembly in 1972 at its meeting in Tokyo, the formal invitation from the Society for Psychology in the German Democratic Republic to hold the 22nd International Congress in Leipzig in 1980 was enthusiastically approved, as was the invitation from the Mexican Society of Psychology to hold the 23rd International Congress in Mexico in 1984.

Executive Committee meeting, Windsor 1977

A financial windfall from the Paris congress

The new Executive Committee met again in Windsor, England, October 11–13, 1977, to discuss unfinished business from the Paris congress and to plan for the future. In his final report before retiring, Mailloux announced, to everyone’s relief, that the annual subsidy for IUPS from UNESCO through ISSC was US$15,310, only a small drop from the previous year. The support would remain the same for at least the next year. Moreover, the reserve fund from small surpluses in past budgets and congresses had now grown to US$31,922. This good news was further reinforced by Fraisse, who reported that a grant from the French Government of US$80,000 to support the Paris congress had arrived too late to be used for the congress. After much discussion, the Treasurer proposed a resolution which was unanimously adopted stating the following: (1) the French money should be used first to defray all remaining expenses incurred by the French Psychological Society in sponsoring the congress; (2) in accordance with the Union’s Statutes, US$10,000 would be immediately available for work of the Executive Committee; (3) preference would be given two French projects: (a) a scientific colloquium on child development in memory of Henri Wallon to be held in Paris in 1979 as part of UNESCO’s Year of the Child, and (b) a new abstracting journal to improve knowledge about French-language publications in psychology; and (4) these funds should be kept in a special, French-franc account in Paris where they would be considered part of the Union’s Reserve Fund.

The finances of the Union were in good shape, thanks to the long and careful management of them by Noël Mailloux as well as to the success of the French congress and to the subsidy of the Secretary-General’s office by the Hogg Foundation for Mental Health at the University of Texas. A great deal of work was accomplished with a very modest, if not meager, budget, largely because of the voluntary efforts of the Executive Committee and many others. The increase in member dues approved in 1976 would help stave off a financial crisis, provided that subsidies from UNESCO continued and there was no need to employ paid central office staff.

The new Committee on Research and Special Projects, consisting primarily of the active project directors with Bélanger as chairman, set out an ambitious agenda to respond to invitations for joint projects with other organizations, to serve as a broker of ideas from IUPS members, to take the initiative in generating new projects appropriate to the IUPS mission, and to review new program opportunities at UNESCO, recognizing that general subsidy of IUPS by UNESCO would probably be phased out. Renewed efforts to secure membership in the International Council of Scientific Unions were recognized as essential if the Union was to achieve its goals of promoting expanded international research activity in the basic psychological sciences other than those sponsored by ISSC. Such membership had been sought on several previous occasions without success during the past 25 years, and it would require a united effort on several fronts to persuade scientists in other disciplines that psychology had much to offer in such interdisciplinary endeavors.

A change in the secretariat

Bélanger moved quickly into his new role as Treasurer. Montmollin decided to retire, leaving open the position of Deputy Secretary-General. Within months, Kurt Pawlik, University of Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, was persuaded to accept appointment as Montmollin’s replacement.

Executive Committee meeting, Leipzig 1978, and General Assembly, Munich 1978

In anticipation of the 1980 congress, the meeting of the Executive Committee, July 26–29, 1978, was held in Leipzig, a city rich in the history of psychology. Ameeting of the Assembly for exchange of information was also held on July 30, 1978, in Munich, in accordance with the new custom of holding IUPS Assembly meetings in conjunction with the quadrennial meetings of the International Congress of Applied Psychology. This interim meeting of the Assembly was called on a trial basis for informational exchange only. A report of deliberations of the Executive Committee over the past 2 years was given, providing an excellent opportunity for a full discussion of future plans and possible new projects. It was clear to all who attended that such interim meetings for information exchange were an excellent means of furthering good communication between the Executive Committee and member national societies, and it was enthusiastically agreed that they should be continued.

As a follow-up to the 1976 International Congress of Psychology in Paris, a special symposium was organized at the Munich congress by the Union’s project on ethical standards and conduct. The nine papers given at the symposium dealt primarily with ethical standards of scientific research in different cultures and were subsequently published (Holtzman, 1979 ).

New Journal editor and changes in publication policies

Growing dissatisfaction with the current arrangement involving Dunod as publisher of the International Journal of Psychology convinced the Committee on Communication and Publications that it was time for a major change. Moreover, Jules Leroux wished to retire as editor. North-Holland (Elsevier) offered the Union a favorable contract, including 6000 Dutch florins of subsidy annually for the editor. Beginning with Volume 14 in 1979, Géry d’Ydewalle, University of Louvain, was selected as the new editor, with US$5000 to be provided annually for support of editorial assistants. A new focus for the Journal would be international aspects of psychology other than cross-cultural issues, with special attention to some of the problems in the developing countries.

A new policy was approved for certain psychology journals such as the German Journal of Psychology and the anticipated new French-Language Psychology. When a reputable, scholarly publication that translates abstracts or articles into a language such as English to promote international scientific psychology asks for support from the Union, the guiding principle of providing non-financial, moral support would be considered. If approved, a brief statement for the journal title page would be authorized along the following lines: “Published under the auspices of the International Union of Psychological Science.”

Preliminary plans for the 1980 congress

Considerable time was spent at the 1977 meeting of the Executive Committee discussing detailed plans for the 1980 International Congress of Psychology under the leadership of Klix, Professors Manfred Vorwerg (Leipzig), chairman of the Organizing Committee, and Jurgen Ruckert (Berlin), Secretary-General of the congress. Chairman of the Program Committee would be Hubert Sydow, and Adolph Kossakowski would be President of the Society for Psychology of the GDR. The German Democratic Republic would provide a subsidy of 300,000 marks. A historical exhibit on Wilhelm Wundt and other pioneers of psychology would be featured, together with a display of early psychological instruments, and major receptions and cultural events were being planned. A loan of up to US$4000 from IUPS in support of pre-Congress activities was approved, with the understanding that the loan would be paid back to IUPS from revenues received in registration of participants for the congress.

Members of the Committee for Research and Special Projects reported on several major projects, as well as two small ones supported in part by IUPS funds: an international study of the role and status of women (Montmollin); another international survey of ethical standards and conduct (Holtzman); research on child rearing and socialization in Africa (Durojaiye); the impact of educational television upon young children (Holtzman); and the results of two small IUPS grants of US$1600 to Jean Morval for an environmental psychology project headquartered in Canada and of US$1000 to Otto Klineberg for completing an international project on college student attitudes.

The first Executive Committee meeting in Latin America, Mexico City 1979

A meeting of the Executive Committee on July 15–18, 1979, in Mexico City was the first of many to follow in which the time and place of the meeting were chosen to take advantage of travel subsidies for Executive Committee members offered by a national society in exchange for lectures at a local university or at a national meeting of the society. Such support proved to be an important way of conserving the very modest funds within IUPS for such travel, while also developing stronger ties between the Executive Committee and national member societies. The second Mexican Congress of Psychology was being held during this period, and the sponsoring Mexican Society had issued an invitation earlier for the Union to hold its 23rd International Congress of Psychology in Mexico. The National University of Mexico provided generous travel support for most of the Executive Committee members in return for their active participation on the program of the Mexican Congress of Psychology. The congress was attended by over 3000 psychologists and students. It was important for members of the Executive Committee to see at first hand the resources and capabilities of the Mexican psychologists to hold a major world congress. The meetings in Mexico City clearly demonstrated such capabilities although the 1984 International Congress of Psychology was actually held in Acapulco, a resort city well equipped for large meetings.

Contributions to the International Year of the Child

The Union made several important contributions to UNESCO’s International Year of the Child in 1979. First, UNESCO’s Education Division agreed to publish and distribute the results of the 3-year study by IUPS on the impact of educational television upon children. Then the French conference on the Psychology of the Child was held, sponsored jointly by IUPS and the French Society of Psychology, using reserve funds from the 1976 Paris congress. And finally, a second conference was held in September 1979 at the University of Texas in Austin, sponsored by UNESCO and the Hogg Foundation for Mental Health under the auspices of IUPS. Entitled “Trends in Social Science Research on Children,” this conference was initiated by the Division for the Study of Development within UNESCO and involved psychologists from throughout the world, including Diaz-Guerrero, Tomaszewski, Durojaiye, and Holtzman from the Union’s Executive Committee. The conference’s recommendations were well received by UNESCO and resulted in collaborative program activities for some years to come between IUPS and the Division for the Study of Development.

Women’s role and status

A 2-year grant of US$34,000 was also received from UNESCO through ISSC for the IUPS project on Women’s Role and Status initiated by Montmollin. An initial research conference was held in Austin in the spring of 1979 at which a four-country cross-cultural study was developed involving principal investigators from France (Germaine Montmollin), Tunisia (Taoufik Rabah), Mexico (Graciela Rodriguez), and the United States (Georgia Babladelis). Eduardo Almeida from the National University of Mexico agreed to serve as the overall project coordinator. A report of findings on several thousand women surveyed in the four countries was presented at a special symposium at the 1980 International Congress of Psychology and was published as a Special Issue of the International Journal of Psychology (Montmollin, 1983 ).

Final plans for the 22nd International Congress of Psychology to be held in Leipzig on July 6–12, 1980, were also presented and approved at the 1979 Executive Committee meeting. By mail ballot, the Dominican Association of Psychology was admitted as a new member and the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology was welcomed as a new affiliate of the Union.

Revised procedures for admission of new members

Taking note of a resolution by the French Society of Psychology to discontinue mail ballot procedures for admission of new members, the Executive Committee proposed revised procedures that were later unanimously approved by the Assembly in 1980. Henceforth, the Secretary-General would send out the petition for membership and accompanying information to all members of the IUPS for informal review and comment prior to review by the Executive Committee at its next annual meeting. The voting representatives of all member societies would be urged to communicate with their societies concerning the petition, so that comments could be collated by the Secretary-General in preparation for Executive Committee discussion. As in the past, only after review and approval by the Executive Committee would formal mail ballots be sent to the voting representatives of member societies.

A change in publisher

The International Journal of Psychology underwent major changes in 1979. In addition to the successful transfer of publisher from Dunod to North-Holland and the appointment of d’Ydewalle as the new editor, steps were taken to facilitate subscriptions from socialist countries, plans were made for widely publicizing the Journal under a new format by North-Holland, and the Executive Committee approved a new set of principles proposed by Rosenzweig for subsidizing free subscriptions. Member societies with less than 500 members would receive 1 free subscription, societies with less than 1000 but more than 500 would have 2 subscriptions, societies with more than 1000 would receive 3 subscriptions, and each member society would be asked to name the recipients who should receive the allotted journals.

International Directory of Psychologists, third edition

Continuing delays in completion of the third edition of the International Directory of Psychologists were discouraging to the Executive Committee in 1979. After 12 years of planning and delays, there were rumors that Gunther Reinert, the European co-editor, was ill and that no publisher had yet been contracted. North-Holland offered to publish the Directory in time for the Leipzig Congress, provided the manuscript was completed in short order. Eugene Jacobson, the American co-editor of the Directory, was under pressure from the US National Science Foundation, a financial sponsor, to complete the Directory. With the help of Reinert’s assistant, Detlef Herrig at the University of Trier, Jacobson quickly finished the manuscript, North-Holland published the third edition of the International Directory of Psychologists, and it was finally presented at the Leipzig International Congress in 1980. Unfortunately Reinert failed to live long enough to see the final product of his many years of effort. The third edition contained information on approximately 17,000 psychologists from 100 countries, exclusive of the United States. (It was considered unnecessary to include the United States because the American Psychological Association’s annual directory provided a listing of most American psychologists.)

Psychology returns to its origins by sponsoring the 22nd International Congress of Psychology, Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, 1980

The 22nd International Congress of Psychology was held in Leipzig, on July 6–12, 1980, with 4015 individuals registered from 58 countries. The congress attracted a large number of psychologists from the socialist countries of Eastern Europe. Opening addresses were given by Friedhart Klix, President of the congress, Hans-Joachim Bohme, Minister for Higher and Technical Education of the GDR, and Arthur Summerfield, President of the IUPS. Klix spoke on the evolution of cognitive processes from animal to contemporary human problem solving, and Summerfield commented on the special historical significance of meeting in Leipzig 100 years after the founding by Wilhelm Wundt of the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig.

The main body of the congress consisted of 37 invited lectures by distinguished psychologists from throughout the world; 57 symposia on a wide range of topics; 62 thematic sessions comprised of individual papers; 10 psychological films; and 36 free sessions—nearly 1300 contributions. A total of 42 young psychologists were welcomed from 13 countries; 72 exhibitors displayed their materials and instruments; and 13,000 tickets were sold for cultural events associated with the congress. Income was approximately 500,000 marks, and the Government of the GDR paid the difference between income received and expenses for the congress.

The opening addresses and invited lectures were bound and distributed at the congress in a preliminary version of the congress proceedings. All of the symposia and papers presented in the thematic sessions were also listed in this early version by title and author, together with an alphabetical listing of most registrants and their mailing addresses. The authors of presentations came from 40 different countries, the largest number being from the host country, the GDR. Large delegations of at least 100 psychologists also attended from neighboring Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as from the United States and Japan, testifying once again to the importance of holding international congresses in different parts of the world as a way of involving a greater diversity of psychologists in global activities.

Selected papers presented at the Congress were edited and published in 1982 by North-Holland in a series of ten volumes as follows:

The IUPS Assembly met twice during the congress, once on July 9, when they heard various reports and drew up nomination slates for election of the President and the two Vice-Presidents, and again on July 11 when officers were elected and other items of business were conducted. A total of 63 voting representatives were present from 33 different countries at one session or the other. Representatives of the five international associations affiliated with the Union were also present and gave brief reports of their activities. The Assembly accepted the invitation of the Australian Psychological Society to hold the 1988 International Congress in Sydney.

New officers elected


Friedhart Klix: President of the 22nd International Congress of Psychology, Leipzig, 1980, and later President of IUPsyS 1980–1984.

Friedhart Klix was elected President of the Union for the next 4 years, and Rosenzweig and Tomaszewski were elected Vice-Presidents. Hiroshi Azuma (University of Tokyo), Géry d’Ydewalle (University of Louvain, Belgium), Germaine Montmollin (University of Paris), Ronald Taft (Monash University, Australia), Martti Takala (Jyvaskyla University, Finland), and Durganand Sinha (Allahabad University, India) were newly elected members of the Executive Committee, joining Diaz-Guerrero, Durojaiye, Lomov, and Summerfield, who were re-elected.

The Assembly also elected the Chinese Psychological Society as the 44th member of the Union and heard brief reports from the Secretary-General, the Treasurer, and each of the committee chairmen. As proposed by the International Social Science Council, a Resolution on Free Circulation of Scientists was reviewed and unanimously adopted by the Assembly (see Figure 11.2 ). Diaz-Guerrero and Mario Cicero, President of the Mexican Society of Psychology, gave a brief report on preliminary planning for the 23rd International Congress of Psychology to be held in Mexico early in September 1984.

The Wilhelm Wundt Special Fund

Upon the invitation of Manfred Vorwerg, Chairman of the Organizing Committee for the Leipzig Congress, the Assembly approved the establishment of the Wilhelm Wundt Special Fund under the auspices of the Union to support research in the field of psychological history and to provide for scientific exchange with the aim of preserving the Wundt legacy. Support from the Government of the GDR for this international project was assured. Execution of the plan was left in the hands of psychologists within the GDR, with external advice to be provided by an international committee formed for the purpose.

Organization of the new Executive Committee

At the closing session of the 1980 Executive Committee meetings, Holtzman, Pawlik, and Bélanger were reappointed as Secretary-General, Deputy Secretary-General, and Treasurer, respectively. Continuing as Chairman of Communication and Publications, Rosenzweig reported that North-Holland had agreed to increase the number of pages per volume of the International Journal of Psychology by at least one third. The actual number of pages increased from 308 in 1980 to 420 in 1981, and to 504 in 1982, an increase of 64% in only 2 years. Plans were also launched for the compilation and publication by North-Holland of a new edition for the International Directory of Psychologists. Pawlik was named chairman of a committee consisting of Montmollin, Rosenzweig, d’Ydewalle, and Holtzman to develop a proposal for support of the fourth edition by the Regional Participation Fund of UNESCO. The proposal was subsequently submitted through the Federal Republic of Germany’s National Commission to UNESCO as part of the 1981-83 Participation Program, but only US$2000 was approved. Although the American Psychological Association donated US$500 for the new directory, the available amount fell short of what was needed. Pawlik later agreed to work out a new plan involving the publication services of North-Holland and close cooperation by IUPS member societies, who would have to submit camera-ready copy that he could then edit.

FIGURE 11.2
Free circulation of scientists


Considering that IUPS is a non-political organization strongly adhering to the principle that scientists from all parts of the world have the right to participate in its activities and in those of its Member Associations with regard to race, religion, political philosophy, ethnic origin, citizenship, language, or sex;
Considering that IUPS exists in order to promote active cooperation in scientific matters among scientists from all parts of the world, regardless of the political structure of their governments and that it is a well-established principle that scientific meetings shall not be disturbed by political statements or by any activities of a political nature;
Noting that invaluable work carried out by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) to improve scientific communication and cooperation, also reflected in the Resolution on Political Non-Discrimination adopted by ICSU in 1958, in the Resolutions on the Free Circulation of Scientists adopted by ICSU in 1963, 1972, 1974, and 1976, and in the Resolution on the Free Circulation of Scientists adopted by the International Social Science Council in 1979,
The General Assembly of IUPS has unanimously adopted at Leipzig, GDR, the following Resolution:
The IUPS affirms the right of the scientists of any country or
territory to adhere to, or to associate with, international scientific
activity without regard to race, religion, political philosophy,
ethnicity, or sex and confirms its basic policy of political non-
discrimination.

Such adherence or association has no implication with respect to recognition of the government of the country or its policies.
The IUPS is prepared to recognize the academy, research council, national committee, or other bona fide scientific group representing scientific activity of any country or territory acting under a government de facto or de jure that controls it, subject only to payment of subscription and submission of required reports.
Meetings or assemblies of IUPS or of its dependent organisms such as special committees and commissions shall be held in countries which permit participation of every national member of IUPS or of the dependent organisms of IUPS concerned, and allow free discussion and prompt dissemination of information related to such meetings.
In holding IUPS meetings and meetings of IUPS scientific and special committees, the Union shall take all measures within its powers to ensure the fundamental right of participation, without any discrimination, of the representatives of every member of IUPS concerned and of invited observers.

Executive Committee meeting, Caracas 1981

Erik Becker Becker, a member of the Assembly from Venezuela, invited the Executive Committee to hold its 1981 meeting in Caracas on September 8–11. Travel support was generously provided by the Venezuelan Federation of Psychologists in return for lectures at the National University by Executive Committee members.

Major new projects

Several new projects as well as ongoing activities were reviewed by the Executive Committee under the leadership of President Klix, who emphasized the importance of involving more psychologists from member societies in the Union’s projects. Five major project areas were outlined, together with the naming of individuals responsible for each: (1) Child and human development (Holtzman); (2) Man-machine systems (Klix); (3) Psychology and the Third World (Sinha); (4) Man and the biosphere (Rosenzweig and Klix); and (5) Professional and legal issues in psychology (Montmollin). Reports from a 2-day meeting in January 1981 of Klix, Holtzman, Pawlik, and Montmollin with officials of ISSC, UNESCO, and ICSU concerning these and other possible new IUPS programs were sufficiently encouraging to stimulate extensive discussion by the Executive Committee.

Among the major projects under way, a second international conference on human development with substantial involvement of IUPS, supported financially by UNESCO’s Division for the Study of Human Development, was held in Doha, State of Qatar, May 9–12, 1981. Papers dealing with childhood inequalities and development presented by Diaz-Guerrero, Durojaiye, Holtzman, and Tomaszewski, together with contributions by 16 other social scientists, were published for UNESCO by the University of Qatar in both English and Arabic editions (UNESCO, 1982 ). Plans were also announced for a third UNESCO-sponsored conference concerned with the impact of psychology on Third World development to be held in conjunction with the 20th International Congress of Applied Psychology in July 1982. Organized by Sinha and Holtzman, this 2-day symposium was subsequently published in a special issue of the International Journal of Psychology (Sinha & Holtzman, 1984 ).

The Secretary-General announced that the Foundation for Child Development in New York had granted IUPS US$4900 to support the planning of a new international network of child research centers, an idea that grew out of the Austin UNESCO conference in September 1979. Originally under the leadership of Nicholas Hobbs of Vanderbilt University, the project had been taken over by Holtzman and IUPS with assistance from Wolfgang Schwendler of UNESCO. A 2-day meeting earlier in 1981 in Ottawa, Canada, under the auspices of the Canadian National Commission to UNESCO, resulted in a list of nearly 70 centers across the world, most of which subsequently joined the network. Through the Secretary-General’s office, a periodic newsletter was issued to reinforce the network. At its meeting in July 1983, the International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development formally adopted the network. A world-wide International Directory of Human Development Research Centers was compiled under the direction of Harold Stevenson, University of Michigan, and was widely distributed in 1985.

The success of the German Journal of Psychology as an English-language journal containing abstracts and reviews of psychological publications in German spawned not only a review journal for original articles in French as an outgrowth of the 1976 Paris congress but also a third journal for Spanish language articles. Under the auspices of IUPS, all three English-language review journals aimed at a world-wide distribution of psychological theory and research originally published in a language other than English. Unfortunately, only the German Journal of Psychology survived beyond the first few years, the other two succumbing to the pressure of financial deficits. The Federation of German Psychological Associations provided the German Journal of Psychology with an annual subvention, assuring its financial stability.

Admission to the International Council of Scientific Unions

A major achievement for IUPS shortly after the 1980 congress in Leipzig was admission to the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) as an Associate Member. For many years the Union had been trying to gain admission to ICSU, but for one reason or another it had never succeeded. Associate membership was viewed as a first step in gaining recognition as a full member, the status enjoyed by other primary scientific disciplines. Recognition by ICSU of psychology as a scientific discipline was important, not only to extend the range of projects and cooperation to other scientific disciplines, but also to accelerate the acceptance of psychology as a science in those countries where it was still classified among social, philosophical, and humanistic disciplines.

Considerable time was spent at the 1981 Executive Committee meeting in developing a multi-faceted plan to ensure successful admission as a full member by the ICSU General Assembly meeting in Cambridge, September 13–17, 1982. Rosenzweig prepared a brief working paper on past relations of IUPS to ICSU. A special committee was appointed by Klix consisting of Rosenzweig, Lomov, and Klix to strengthen the current relations with ICSU, to seek full membership in ICSU, and to develop relevant scientific projects to be undertaken by IUPS in cooperation with ICSU. Together with Summerfield, they agreed to contact influential scientists from other disciplines who were active in ICSU affairs.

Klix, Rosenzweig, and Bélanger met in Paris with the Executive Secretary of ICSU in March 1982, where they learned that assurance of formal support for IUPS admission as a full member must be obtained in advance of the General Assembly meeting. Rosenzweig wrote on behalf of the IUPS to several international unions and national members of ICSU to secure their support. By July, three international unions and six influential national councils or academies had agreed to support the Union’s petition. In the drive to become a full member of ICSU, a minor problem arose concerning the use of IUPS as the acronym for the International Union of Psychological Science, since this particular acronym has been used by the International Union of Physiological Science from 1955 when it was admitted to ICSU. It was proposed that IUPS be changed to IUPsyS to avoid conflict, once the Union has been recognized as a full member of ICSU. All of these efforts proved fruitful, and the Union was formally admitted to full membership at ICSU’s General Assembly meeting in Cambridge on September 13, 1982.

Executive Committee and Assembly meetings, Edinburgh 1982

Strengthening relations with other international organizations

The Union’s Executive Committee meeting in 1982 was held on July 22–24 in Edinburgh immediately prior to the 20th International Congress of Applied Psychology. Relations with international organizations, especially ICSU and ISSC, were reviewed. The International Social Science Council was still going through major changes as a result of negotiations with the International Federation of Social Science Organizations (IFSSO), a loosely knit group of largely governmental agencies and analogous bodies that wanted to have a major role in deliberations by the non-governmental, discipline-oriented organizations that comprised the ISSC. As immediate past-President of ISSC, Summerfield reported that IFSSO was now an integral member of ISSC with voting power but with a status different from the traditional members such as IUPsyS. The addition of IFSSO broadened the base of support for ISSC activities since the social sciences in many countries, especially the socialist and Third World nations, were largely represented by government agencies rather than by private associations. Although IUPsyS would continue to get a small UNESCO subsidy through ISSC, direct research contracts with UNESCO or with ISSC, especially where an interdisciplinary, international project was undertaken, would be the area of greatest potential future growth for IUPsyS as far as the social sciences were concerned. Summerfield gave as an example a new ISSC project on which his network of environmental psychology was working, the outcome of which would be published in an ISSC monograph.


Participants at an international research conference organized by the IUPsyS and held at the 20th International Congress of Applied Psychology in Edinburgh, in July 1982—Front row (left to right): José M. Salazar (Venezuela), Jai B. Sinha (India), *C.C. Jing (China), unidentified woman, *Michael O.A. Durojaiye (Nigeria), Cigdem Kagitcibasi (Turkey), Albert Charns (UK), *Durganand Sinha (India), *Hiroshi Azuma (Japan), *Alfredo V. Lagmay (Philippines). Back row (left to right): Ida Fisher (Assistant to Wayne Holtzman), Wolfgang Schwendler (UNESCO), *Rogelio Diaz-Guerrero (Mexico), Levon Melikian (Qatar), Robert Serpell (Zambia), Harry Triandis (USA), *Wayne Holtzman (USA). *Members of the Union’s Assembly in 1982.

With respect to other international organizations, Pawlik represented the Union at meetings of the International Test Commission, and d’Ydewalle was the Union’s representative at meetings of the International Committee for Social Science Information and Documentation. Several members of the Finnish Psychological Society under the leadership of Kirsti Lagerspetz, had proposed that IUPsyS initiate a discussion among members concerning the establishment of an international group of psychologists interested in promoting peace and resisting nuclear arms. Although the Union was unable to provide any financial support for this effort, the topic was judged to be an important one. The 1984 International Congress of Psychology in Mexico presented an ideal venue for launching the special interest group called Psychologists for Peace and Against Nuclear War.

Review of the Statutes

Once again it was deemed necessary to propose revisions in the Union’s Statutes and Rules of Procedure to take account of a proposed change in the structure and amount of dues and to include committee chairmen as ex-officio members of the Executive Committee. A major unresolved problem was how to deal with delinquent dues payments, especially in view of the world economic recession and serious distortions of currency exchange that were severely impairing the ability of some members to make timely payments. The Treasurer was instructed to prepare for approval by the 1984 Assembly a new scale of payments that would allow a member to continue in a non-voting status while paying no dues.

International Directory of Psychologists, fourth edition

Considerable progress under the leadership of Pawlik was made on the fourth edition of the International Directory of Psychologists. The Australian Psychological Society voluntarily contributed US$500 in support of the preparation of the Directory, thereby matching the earlier amount donated by the American Psychological Association. Shortly thereafter, the Federation of German Psychological Societies and the Japanese Psychological Association also made substantial contributions. All but 1 of 16 member societies responding to Pawlik’s earlier survey were strongly in favor of submitting camera-ready copy of individual entries, which could then be compiled by the editor and published by North-Holland.

Given the very small available budget and the press of time, each society would have to take full responsibility for the precise typing of each entry on blue-line paper that could then be photocopied directly into the printing process. By the time of the 1983 Executive Committee meeting in Sydney, Australia, 85% of IUPsyS members had responded favorably. Several non-member societies from Third World countries were also included, thanks to the cooperation of the Union’s affiliate, the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. A deadline of September 1984 was established for receipt of final copy, and the fourth edition of the International Directory of Psychologists was published on schedule (Pawlik, 1985 ), a major accomplishment requiring skillful management and the excellent cooperation of many individuals.

The attractiveness of the International Journal of Psychology had improved considerably under d’Ydewalle’s editorship and North-Holland’s management. In 1982, 26 articles out of 139 submissions had been published. By 1984, of 164 manuscripts received, 47 were published representing first contributors from 39 different countries. Special Issues were proving particularly attractive and the number of pages per volume had grown to almost 600 by 1982. However, paid subscriptions tended to hover around 800. The contract with North-Holland was up for renewal in December 1983, and renegotiation was undertaken by d’Ydewalle as editor and Rosenzweig as Chairman of the Committee on Communication and Publications.

New projects with ICSU

New projects within IUPsyS continued to grow as a result of ICSU membership. A first international workshop on man-machine systems was organized by Klix and was held on July 29, 1982, in conjunction with the Edinburgh Applied Congress. This area later proved to be particularly relevant to the interests of other scientific disciplines within ICSU, as evidenced by a grant to the Union from ICSU of US$4000 in 1983 and US$8500 in 1984 to support international conferences. The Man-Machine Interactive Network (MACINTER) that developed from these activities under the Union held its first international seminar on October 15–19, 1984, at Humboldt University, Berlin, attended by 94 scientists from 16 different countries (Klix, 1985 ). These initial efforts were sufficiently encouraging that ICSU invited IUPsyS participation in its Science Education Project, in particular, conferences on science education to be held in Bangalore, India, and Ottawa, Canada in 1985. It was generally agreed that the Union could make significant contributions in learning, cognition, and instructional psychology. IUPsyS invited Robert Glaser, an expert from the University of Pittsburgh on instructional psychology and its contribution to science education, to represent the Union at both conferences, but he could only attend the Ottawa conference.

References

French Society of Psychology. (1978). Proceedings of the XXIst International Congress of Psychology. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

González Solaz, M.J. (1998). Los congresos internacionales de psicologia (1963–1984). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Valencia, Spain.

Holtzman, W.H. (Ed.) (1979). The IUPS project on professional ethics and conduct. International Journal of Psychology, 14, 107–149.

Klix, F. (1985). Report on the first network seminar of the International Union of Psychological Sciences on man-computer interaction research (MACINTER). International Journal of Psychology, 20, 373–378.

Montmollin, G. de, (Ed.) (1983). Roles and status of women: A psychological perspective. Special issue of International Journal of Psychology, 18, 1–142.

Pawlik, K. (Ed.) (1985). International Directory of Psychologists (Exclusive of the USA). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Sinha, D., & Holtzman, W.H. (Eds.) (1984). The impact of psychology on Third World development. Special issue of International Journal of Psychology, 19, 1–192.

UNESCO (1982). Childhood inequality and development. Doha: University of Qatar.