Fifteen years after its foundation, the International Union of Scientific Psychology, renamed the International Union of Psychological Science, claimed representation from every continent. Whereas a little over 1000 participants from 31 countries attended the first congress following the creation of the Union, the 1966 Moscow Congress proudly welcomed close to 4000 psychologists representing 43 different countries.
The achievements of the last few years were numerous: the growing involvement of psychologists from all parts of the world in the administration of the Union, the ever-increasing exchange of scholars and students, the establishment of a sound publication program, the active presence of the Union in other international organizations, the tremendous improvement in the quality of the congresses scientific programs, the launching of international research projects. These were factors that contributed to the consolidation of the Unions progress. Furthermore, the Union increasingly enjoyed the recognition by psychologists the world over that it could be their voice at an international level.
The participation of a strong delegation of Soviet psychologists to the 1954 Montréal congress, the admission of the Russian Society at Brussels in 1957, and the subsequent participation of psychologists from socialist countries contributed greatly to widen the base of the Union as well as to the exchange of information and the improvement of collaboration in the development of psychology across the world. This encouraging trend reached a culmination in Moscow, from August, 411, 1966, when the 18th International Congress of Psychology was held at the invitation of the Soviet government.
The Moscow Congress was important in enhancing the status of Soviet/Russian psychology, both at home and abroad. Robert Solso, an American scholar of Soviet/Russian psychology, wrote about this as follows:
The selection of Moscow for the meeting of the International
Congress of Psychology was a major event in the history of
Soviet/Russian psychology. The organization of the
Department of Psychology [at the University of Moscow],
independent of philosophy, in 1965 by Alexei Leontiev was
planned to coincide with the event (Solso, 1991 , footnote 8,
It was, to that date, the most representative congress in the history of the Union, with a total participation of 3897 scientists from 43 countries and approximately 1000 accompanying persons. González Solaz (1998 , p. 157) notes that the attendance was far greater than any recorded in previous congresses during the 1960s, and that such a high number of participants was not reached again till the Leipzig congress in 1980. Montoro, Tortosa, and Carpintero (1992) explain this record attendance by the fact that psychologists from the more affluent countries registered in greater numbers.
The Vice-President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, P.N. Fedosseiev, had, with the consultation of eminent Soviet psychologists, appointed a Program Committee with A.R. Luria (Chair) and O.S. Vinogradova (Vice-Chair). The Organizing Committee was chaired by A.A. Smirnov, with I.V. Ravich-Scherbo acting as Vice-Chair. A.N. Leontiev had been elected President of the congress.
|Alexei N. Leontiev (19031979): President of the 18th International Congress of Psychology, Moscow, 1966. |
Besides the opening and closing plenary sessions, 37 symposia and 10 thematic sessions were held during the congress (see Table 9.1 ). Evening lectures were delivered by A.A. Smirnov (USSR) The development of Soviet psychology, by Jean Piaget (Switzerland): Psychology, interdisciplinary relations and the system of sciences, and by Neal Miller (USA): Experimental investigation of psychopathology and theory of learning.
Three volumes of abstracts and 37 volumes of reports which had been chosen for discussion at symposia and thematic sessions were published before the opening of the congress and handed out to participants. The working languages of the congress were Russian, English, and French. Abstracts and the texts of the reports were published in the language in which they were presented, but the papers by Russian authors were also translated into English or French to facilitate their dissemination.
The ceremonial opening of the 18th congress took place in the Kremlins Palace of Congresses, and was attended by more than 5000 people. The first session of the congress was opened by the Minister of Education of the USSR, V.P. Elyutin. Other opening addresses were given by P.N. Fedosseiev, by M.V. Keldish, President of the Academy of Sciences, by N.T. Sizov, Assistant Chairman of the Moscow City Council, and by J. Drever, Jr, President of the International Union of Psychological Science. All other congress meetings, as well an exhibition of psychological literature and one of experimental equipment, took place at the Moscow State University on Lenin Hills. Both exhibitions (particularly the books) were very popular with participants (González Solaz, 1998 , p. 155).
Symposia and thematic sessions: 18th International Congress of Psychology
Over 2 days, the delegates were shown films dealing with psychology and related disciplines. At the same time as the planned sessions, small scientific conferences concerned with problems of creative activity, human engineering, social psychology, ecology, and ethology, were organized on the initiative of certain participants to discuss these branches of the discipline.
The participants and guests visited several Moscow Research Institutes: inter alia, the Institute of Psychology of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, and the Psychology Department of the Moscow State University.
The closing ceremony took place on August 11, in the Assembly Hall of Moscow State University. Karl Pribram (USA), Tadeus Tomaszewski (Poland), Jean Piaget (Switzerland), Paul Fraisse (France), and Barbel Inhelder (Switzerland) gave the final speeches. Concluding remarks were made by A.R. Luria, Chair of the Program Committee and by the newly elected President of IUPS, Paul Fraisse. After the final session, there was a farewell banquet in the restaurant of the Palace of Congresses.
The first session, held on August 4, was called to order in the presence of representatives from the national societies of 17 countries. Drever presided. He first reported briefly on the activities during his tour of office, stressing the need to re-examine the organizational structure and the operating procedures of IUPS. Secretary-General Russell then noted that international psychology was continuing to develop at an amazingly rapid pace. He reported that the Union had member societies in all continents of the world and that it had doubled its membership during the past few years. He indicated that the extent of the Unions broadening contacts and growing commitments was evident in the business before the Assembly. He expressed hope that detailed attention would be given to the items raised in the paper he had prepared at the request of the Executive Committee and entitled Time for decision: A self-evaluation. He called attention to the article entitled The International Union of Psychological Science published in the first issue of the Unions new journal, the International Journal of Psychology.
Treasurer Mailloux presented his general report of the Unions financial status; he was pleased to report a small favorable balance in hand. Acknowledging the continued support provided by UNESCO, he also called attention to the assistance provided during the past triennium by the Aquinas and the Rockefeller Foundations. The Union approved sponsorship of Maillouxs research project on the intellectual development of the children in Rwanda.
As Chair of the Committee on Communication and Publications, Duijker reported on activities during the previous 3 years. He mentioned the work carried out to produce the second edition of the International Directory of Psychologists, to be published at the end of the year. He also noted the progress that had been made in the preparation of the Trilingual Lexicon of Psychological Terms and called attention to a round-table scheduled during the present congress to discuss issues affecting the international flow of information in psychology.
Paul Fraisse was elected President by secret ballot during the first session, on August 4. At the third session of the Assembly, on August 8, in accordance with the newly voted Statute which increased the vice-presidencies to two, both Leontiev and Russell were elected Vice-Presidents by secret ballot. After customary reception of nominations and discussion, the election to the Executive Committee led to the following result: Klineberg, Luria, Mailloux, Nuttin, Pfaffmann, Piaget, Sato, Summerfield, Tomaszewski, and Yela.
|Paul Fraisse (19111996): President of the IUSP, 19661969. Also, President of the 21st International Congress of Psychology, Paris, 1976. |
Representatives of 19 national members were present at the second session on August 6. The session opened with the presentation and approval of the resolution to change the Statutes to two vice-presidents
Membership items were then considered. The Philippines Psychological Association election to membership was confirmed. The request made by Australia to be now represented by the Australian Psychological Society was accepted. Having been dropped at the last meeting in 1963, the Cuban and Egyptian Societies could be reinstated as members conditional upon payment of arrears in annual subscriptions and the submission of their statutes or constitution. The Cuban Society, having satisfied these requirements, was unanimously re-elected to membership. No word had yet been received from the Egyptian Society. The Assembly also approved the application of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), of the Romanian Psychological Society, of the Hungarian Psychological Scientific Association, and of the Mexican Psychological Society. The request of the Western Germany Society to be represented through the new Federation of German Psychological Associations was granted. The application of Tunisia was postponed pending receipt of information on the societys membership and assurance that membership was open to all qualified psychologists in Tunisia. Many other potential members had been contacted. Among those responding, the Greek Society had requested a meeting with the officers of the Union during the 1966 congress.
Three major items related to future congresses were discussed. First, Summerfield reported that the plans for the 1969 congress in the United Kingdom were already underway. Second, the Assembly expressed great pleasure in receiving a formal invitation from the Japanese Psychological Association to hold the 1972 congress in Tokyo, confirming the approbation already given. Third, regarding future congresses, the Assembly considered and approved a resolution that future congresses be held at intervals of 4 years rather than 3 and that the timing be coordinated with the IAAP meetings, instructed to begin with the 21st congress in 1976. Also, the Assembly instructed the President to draft a new Rule of Procedure to be added as Section 1, Paragraph 2, stating that the host society or association shall take all reasonable steps to ensure that political matters are not introduced into the ceremonial and social occasions which form parts of a congress.
The Joint APA-IUPS Project on the International Exchange of Psychologists had led to a meeting on August 6. Out of the several recommendations made, one appeared to have particular urgency and was therefore raised with the Assembly. It was recommended that a Standing Committee on International Exchange of Scholars and Students be immediately established; after discussion, this recommendation was adopted unanimously.
Sherman Ross, director of the Joint APA-IUPS Project on International Exchange of Psychologists, was invited to report personally on the present status of this joint effort. He informed the Assembly that a volume entitled International Opportunities for Advanced Training and Research in Psychology was now in press and that it contained information provided by about 90 countries. It was to be distributed, free of charge, as widely as possible. The Assembly expressed its appreciation for what was clearly a major contribution to the development of international psychology. Ross added that additional actions directed toward the major objective of fostering improved exchanges of scholars and students at the international level would now be undertaken.
The specific proposals contained in the Suggestions for Actionsection of the report entitled Time for Decision: A Self-Evaluation presented by Russell as retiring Secretary-General a few days previous, were considered. This lead