Fifteen years after its foundation, the International Union of Scientific Psychology, renamed the International Union of Psychological Science, claimed representation from every continent. Whereas a little over 1000 participants from 31 countries attended the first congress following the creation of the Union, the 1966 Moscow Congress proudly welcomed close to 4000 psychologists representing 43 different countries.
The achievements of the last few years were numerous: the growing involvement of psychologists from all parts of the world in the administration of the Union, the ever-increasing exchange of scholars and students, the establishment of a sound publication program, the active presence of the Union in other international organizations, the tremendous improvement in the quality of the congresses scientific programs, the launching of international research projects. These were factors that contributed to the consolidation of the Unions progress. Furthermore, the Union increasingly enjoyed the recognition by psychologists the world over that it could be their voice at an international level.
The participation of a strong delegation of Soviet psychologists to the 1954 Montréal congress, the admission of the Russian Society at Brussels in 1957, and the subsequent participation of psychologists from socialist countries contributed greatly to widen the base of the Union as well as to the exchange of information and the improvement of collaboration in the development of psychology across the world. This encouraging trend reached a culmination in Moscow, from August, 411, 1966, when the 18th International Congress of Psychology was held at the invitation of the Soviet government.
The Moscow Congress was important in enhancing the status of Soviet/Russian psychology, both at home and abroad. Robert Solso, an American scholar of Soviet/Russian psychology, wrote about this as follows:
The selection of Moscow for the meeting of the International
Congress of Psychology was a major event in the history of
Soviet/Russian psychology. The organization of the
Department of Psychology [at the University of Moscow],
independent of philosophy, in 1965 by Alexei Leontiev was
planned to coincide with the event (Solso, 1991 , footnote 8,
It was, to that date, the most representative congress in the history of the Union, with a total participation of 3897 scientists from 43 countries and approximately 1000 accompanying persons. González Solaz (1998 , p. 157) notes that the attendance was far greater than any recorded in previous congresses during the 1960s, and that such a high number of participants was not reached again till the Leipzig congress in 1980. Montoro, Tortosa, and Carpintero (1992) explain this record attendance by the fact that psychologists from the more affluent countries registered in greater numbers.
The Vice-President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, P.N. Fedosseiev, had, with the consultation of eminent Soviet psychologists, appointed a Program Committee with A.R. Luria (Chair) and O.S. Vinogradova (Vice-Chair). The Organizing Committee was chaired by A.A. Smirnov, with I.V. Ravich-Scherbo acting as Vice-Chair. A.N. Leontiev had been elected President of the congress.
|Alexei N. Leontiev (19031979): President of the 18th International Congress of Psychology, Moscow, 1966. |
Besides the opening and closing plenary sessions, 37 symposia and 10 thematic sessions were held during the congress (see Table 9.1 ). Evening lectures were delivered by A.A. Smirnov (USSR) The development of Soviet psychology, by Jean Piaget (Switzerland): Psychology, interdisciplinary relations and the system of sciences, and by Neal Miller (USA): Experimental investigation of psychopathology and theory of learning.
Three volumes of abstracts and 37 volumes of reports which had been chosen for discussion at symposia and thematic sessions were published before the opening of the congress and handed out to participants. The working languages of the congress were Russian, English, and French. Abstracts and the texts of the reports were published in the language in which they were presented, but the papers by Russian authors were also translated into English or French to facilitate their dissemination.
The ceremonial opening of the 18th congress took place in the Kremlins Palace of Congresses, and was attended by more than 5000 people. The first session of the congress was opened by the Minister of Education of the USSR, V.P. Elyutin. Other opening addresses were given by P.N. Fedosseiev, by M.V. Keldish, President of the Academy of Sciences, by N.T. Sizov, Assistant Chairman of the Moscow City Council, and by J. Drever, Jr, President of the International Union of Psychological Science. All other congress meetings, as well an exhibition of psychological literature and one of experimental equipment, took place at the Moscow State University on Lenin Hills. Both exhibitions (particularly the books) were very popular with participants (González Solaz, 1998 , p. 155).
Symposia and thematic sessions: 18th International Congress of Psychology
Over 2 days, the delegates were shown films dealing with psychology and related disciplines. At the same time as the planned sessions, small scientific conferences concerned with problems of creative activity, human engineering, social psychology, ecology, and ethology, were organized on the initiative of certain participants to discuss these branches of the discipline.
The participants and guests visited several Moscow Research Institutes: inter alia, the Institute of Psychology of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, and the Psychology Department of the Moscow State University.
The closing ceremony took place on August 11, in the Assembly Hall of Moscow State University. Karl Pribram (USA), Tadeus Tomaszewski (Poland), Jean Piaget (Switzerland), Paul Fraisse (France), and Barbel Inhelder (Switzerland) gave the final speeches. Concluding remarks were made by A.R. Luria, Chair of the Program Committee and by the newly elected President of IUPS, Paul Fraisse. After the final session, there was a farewell banquet in the restaurant of the Palace of Congresses.
The first session, held on August 4, was called to order in the presence of representatives from the national societies of 17 countries. Drever presided. He first reported briefly on the activities during his tour of office, stressing the need to re-examine the organizational structure and the operating procedures of IUPS. Secretary-General Russell then noted that international psychology was continuing to develop at an amazingly rapid pace. He reported that the Union had member societies in all continents of the world and that it had doubled its membership during the past few years. He indicated that the extent of the Unions broadening contacts and growing commitments was evident in the business before the Assembly. He expressed hope that detailed attention would be given to the items raised in the paper he had prepared at the request of the Executive Committee and entitled Time for decision: A self-evaluation. He called attention to the article entitled The International Union of Psychological Science published in the first issue of the Unions new journal, the International Journal of Psychology.
Treasurer Mailloux presented his general report of the Unions financial status; he was pleased to report a small favorable balance in hand. Acknowledging the continued support provided by UNESCO, he also called attention to the assistance provided during the past triennium by the Aquinas and the Rockefeller Foundations. The Union approved sponsorship of Maillouxs research project on the intellectual development of the children in Rwanda.
As Chair of the Committee on Communication and Publications, Duijker reported on activities during the previous 3 years. He mentioned the work carried out to produce the second edition of the International Directory of Psychologists, to be published at the end of the year. He also noted the progress that had been made in the preparation of the Trilingual Lexicon of Psychological Terms and called attention to a round-table scheduled during the present congress to discuss issues affecting the international flow of information in psychology.
Paul Fraisse was elected President by secret ballot during the first session, on August 4. At the third session of the Assembly, on August 8, in accordance with the newly voted Statute which increased the vice-presidencies to two, both Leontiev and Russell were elected Vice-Presidents by secret ballot. After customary reception of nominations and discussion, the election to the Executive Committee led to the following result: Klineberg, Luria, Mailloux, Nuttin, Pfaffmann, Piaget, Sato, Summerfield, Tomaszewski, and Yela.
|Paul Fraisse (19111996): President of the IUSP, 19661969. Also, President of the 21st International Congress of Psychology, Paris, 1976. |
Representatives of 19 national members were present at the second session on August 6. The session opened with the presentation and approval of the resolution to change the Statutes to two vice-presidents
Membership items were then considered. The Philippines Psychological Association election to membership was confirmed. The request made by Australia to be now represented by the Australian Psychological Society was accepted. Having been dropped at the last meeting in 1963, the Cuban and Egyptian Societies could be reinstated as members conditional upon payment of arrears in annual subscriptions and the submission of their statutes or constitution. The Cuban Society, having satisfied these requirements, was unanimously re-elected to membership. No word had yet been received from the Egyptian Society. The Assembly also approved the application of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), of the Romanian Psychological Society, of the Hungarian Psychological Scientific Association, and of the Mexican Psychological Society. The request of the Western Germany Society to be represented through the new Federation of German Psychological Associations was granted. The application of Tunisia was postponed pending receipt of information on the societys membership and assurance that membership was open to all qualified psychologists in Tunisia. Many other potential members had been contacted. Among those responding, the Greek Society had requested a meeting with the officers of the Union during the 1966 congress.
Three major items related to future congresses were discussed. First, Summerfield reported that the plans for the 1969 congress in the United Kingdom were already underway. Second, the Assembly expressed great pleasure in receiving a formal invitation from the Japanese Psychological Association to hold the 1972 congress in Tokyo, confirming the approbation already given. Third, regarding future congresses, the Assembly considered and approved a resolution that future congresses be held at intervals of 4 years rather than 3 and that the timing be coordinated with the IAAP meetings, instructed to begin with the 21st congress in 1976. Also, the Assembly instructed the President to draft a new Rule of Procedure to be added as Section 1, Paragraph 2, stating that the host society or association shall take all reasonable steps to ensure that political matters are not introduced into the ceremonial and social occasions which form parts of a congress.
The Joint APA-IUPS Project on the International Exchange of Psychologists had led to a meeting on August 6. Out of the several recommendations made, one appeared to have particular urgency and was therefore raised with the Assembly. It was recommended that a Standing Committee on International Exchange of Scholars and Students be immediately established; after discussion, this recommendation was adopted unanimously.
Sherman Ross, director of the Joint APA-IUPS Project on International Exchange of Psychologists, was invited to report personally on the present status of this joint effort. He informed the Assembly that a volume entitled International Opportunities for Advanced Training and Research in Psychology was now in press and that it contained information provided by about 90 countries. It was to be distributed, free of charge, as widely as possible. The Assembly expressed its appreciation for what was clearly a major contribution to the development of international psychology. Ross added that additional actions directed toward the major objective of fostering improved exchanges of scholars and students at the international level would now be undertaken.
The specific proposals contained in the Suggestions for Actionsection of the report entitled Time for Decision: A Self-Evaluation presented by Russell as retiring Secretary-General a few days previous, were considered. This lead to the consideration of the following 12 resolutions:
- There was an agreement in principle on the need to establish a full-time secretariat. The means by which this decision could be implemented were to be explored.
- It was agreed that each member society should identify one of its members as the primary contact person with the Union.
- Two suggestions concerning the International Journal of Psychology (IJP) were discussed and approved: (a) that free subscriptions be provided to each of the national societies and to each of their representatives at the Assembly, and (b) that a regular feature of IJP should be concerned with current plans, issues, and activities of importance to the Union.
- It was agreed in principle that the International Congress of Psychology program include a general meeting, open to all, at which IUPS officers would report on issues and activities. Individual psychologists would have an opportunity to comment and ask questions. The British Psychological Society was informed of this resolution so that it could be implemented at the 1969 congress.
- It was agreed that the Executive Committee should continue to support as fully as possible the work of its Ad Hoc Working Group on the International Biological Program and seek to establish closer relations with the experimental psychology group of the International Union of Biological Sciences.
- The Executive Committee was requested to discuss problems of a purely professional nature and to prepare a position paper on the role of the Union in relation to such problems.
- The Executive Committee was asked to consider actions to enable implementation of the following suggestions:
- arrange conferences for young teachers of psychology in areas where the discipline is in early stages of development,
- sponsor meetings of psychologists experienced in working in developing countries to explore ways by which the Union could be of assistance in the growth of psychology,
- provide assistance to new universities in developing countries by making available free subscriptions to the Unions publications,
- explore with member societies the possibility that their publications could also be made available to new universities free of charge.
- It was approved in principle that procedures should be worked out to involve more fully the representatives of national societies in the ongoing activities of IUPS.
- The advisability of establishing a category of Associate Members for new national societies which are not yet sufficiently strong to consider application for full membership was considered and rejected.
- It was agreed that only representatives of national members receive General Assembly and Executive Committee meeting minutes. Requests from others should be considered by the Secretary-General, in consultation with the President.
- The Executive Committee was asked to consider three suggestions:
- that an Ad Hoc Committee on Collaborative Research be established to provide full and systematic support for research projects involving collaboration among psychologists from different countries,
- that a feasibility study be conducted of the means by which international centersor special programsmight be established for advanced training in areas of the world where psychology is only beginning to develop,
- that IUPS take action toward the encouragement of fuller use of the world literature in psychology.
- It was agreed that steps should be taken to make use of UNESCO sources of support for research and other activities.
Fraisse presented his first report as acting editor of the new journal. Negotiations with Publisher Dunod (France) regarding agreements for printing and distribution of the journal were described. He made two recommendations that were approved unanimously. First, that Germaine de Montmollin be appointed executive editor of the journal, and second, that the Deputy Secretary-General serve as an associate editor, with responsibility for the sections concerned with news of activities of the Union and its member societies.
Duijker, who represented the IUPS at ISSC, reported that the Committee on International Social Science Documentation was now interested in studying the processes underlying the communication of social science information. Since the existence of Psychological Abstracts, published by the APA, meets the needs of the psychological community, the committee decided not to continue publication of abstracts of current psychological literature.
Klineberg and Nuttin, both members of ISSC, reported that communication channels between IUPS and ISSC were very satisfactory. They discussed the recent symposium on methods for cross-national and cross-cultural research organized by ISSC.
The Secretary-General reported on the activities of the Working Group engaged in various projects designed to support UNESCOs continuing interest in the world-wide alleviation of illiteracy. The IUPS provides assistance to this program by keeping the national societies informed of the role they might play.
Klineberg, the Unions special liaison to UNESCO, reported on the possible effects of the administrative reorganization of UNESCO affecting the social sciences. He indicated that a proposal to increase the annual subvention to IUPS would be presented at the next General Conference in 1966. Such additional support would come at a most opportune time, when the Unions activities were being significantly increased. Finally, he proposed that each member of the Assembly be provided a copy of the recent UNESCO publication Attitudes Toward Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, the Union bearing any costs that might be incurred.
Two resolutions related to the 1966 Moscow congress received unanimous approval: The first expressed the Unions gratitude to the government of the USSR for their support of the 18th International Congress of Psychology, the largest ever to be held. It also thanked the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and R.N. Fedossiev, who acted as Chair of the Steering Committee for the Congress. The second resolution expressed deep appreciation to the Psychological Society of the USSR for the excellent work done in the organization and conduct of the 18th congress. Particular thanks went to Luria, who chaired the Program Committee, to Smirnov, Chair of the Organizing Committee, and to Tikhomirov, the Secretary-General.
The first session was held on August 4. After reviewing in detail the agenda that had been set and circulated for the 1966 Assembly meetings, the Executive Committee received the report of the Committee on Communication and Publications, chaired by Duijker. It mentioned that a collaborative study of the 1966 congress would be carried out by the Soviet Psychological Society and the American Psychological Association; the results would be very helpful in the planning of future congresses. Duijker informed the Executive Committee of his resignation. Committee members expressed deep appreciation for the very significant contribution he made over his long tenure.
The second session, held on August 11, was chaired by the new President, Paul Fraisse, and attended by all members of the Executive Committee. The first item of business was the appointment of a Secretary-General (Eugene Jacobson), a Deputy Secretary-General (G. Nielsen), and a Treasurer (Noël Mailloux). Joseph Nuttin was appointed Chair of the Committee on Communication and Publications.
For the next International congress, to be held in London, UK in 1969, Luria was appointed as the Unions liaison with the British Psychological Societys Program Committee. The official languages of the congress would be English and French. The committee took this occasion to have a general discussion on the form and procedures of international congresses. The Committee on Communication and Publications was asked to present a report on this issue in 1968, based on the results of a review of the 1966 congress. The Japanese invitation for the 1972 congress was accepted unanimously.
|Eugene H. Jacobson (19171993): Secretary-General of the IUSP (19661972). |
Special liaison appointments were made to various organizations. Thus, Klineberg was appointed to continue to serve as the Unions representative to UNESCO, Nuttin to the International Social Science Council, Duijker to the International Committee on Social Science Documentation, and Summerfield to the International Biological Program.
After examining the composition of the Committee on Communication and Publications and discussing its present activities, the issue of the publication of the Moscow congress proceedings was examined. Since abstracts of the program had already been distributed to all participants, it was proposed that the proceedings of the 1966 congress include only the following: (a) presidential address, (b) the special evening lectures, and (c) a résumé of the congress, with the list of the participants from different countries.
Two recommendations came out of the meeting of the round-table on Psychology and International Relations held on the previous day. First, that there was a need to encourage research relevant to psychology and international relations and to disseminate the information that psychology already has at its disposal in this area. And second, that IUPS should establish a Standing Committee on Psychology and International Relations to meet this need. Action on this proposal was postponed until the 1967 meeting.
A pilot project on Visitors abroad (communication of information about who will be visiting abroad, when and where), considered to be a significant step toward the further encouragement of the international exchange of scholars and students, was approved. The Australian Psychological Society was invited to undertake this study, which would include the development of a method for implementation, and the test of the method within a limited geographical area.
Before the meeting was adjourned, it was decided to hold the 1967 meeting of the Executive Committee in England and the meeting of 1968 in Amsterdam just after the IAAP Congress.
The Executive Committee met on May 12, 1967, in Windsor, UK. President Fraisse summarized recent IUPS activities and introduced the agenda of the meeting. He commented on the publication of the first issues of the International Journal of Psychology and on the increase in the subvention of UNESCO to the IUPS. He also emphasized the continuing need for improvement of communication between national societies and the IUPS and the need to increase the involvement of national societies.
Secretary-General Jacobson presented his 1966 report to UNESCO on the activities of IUPS and reviewed two rosters. The first roster, entitled A List of Members of the Assembly, raised the issue of representation when a member of a national society was elected to the Executive Committee. Fraisse suggested that a national member should be allowed to appoint an additional representative in such a case. It was proposed to amend the Statutes to clarify this issue. The second roster, List of National Societies with Membership in the IUPS, raised some questions about the official contacts with member societies. The Secretary-General also reported that the IUPS had 34 member societies and that communication should be continued with Tunisia regarding its possible membership.
Nuttin, as Chair of the Communication and Publications Committee, first mentioned that the second edition of the International Directory of Psychologists had been published in the Fall of 1966 with the financial assistance of the US National Science Foundation and UNESCO. He was pleased to report that it contained the names of approximately 8000 psychologists in countries other than the USA. Second, he indicated that tentative plans for the preparation of the third edition of the Directory would be postponed until the Amsterdam Executive Committee meeting in 1968, in order to have more complete information on estimated costs and chosen strategy. Third, he noted that the Trilingual Lexicon of Psychological Terms was in its final review phase and that potential publishers were being sought. Nuttin reported on his communication with the Editor of the Psychological Abstracts about increasing the role of the national societies in providing information for the Abstracts.
Fraisse mentioned that 1300 copies of the International Journal of Psychology had been printed and that the number of subscribers was increasing, although more would be needed. The contract with Dunod would end in 1969, requiring new renegotiations. It was decided that a small group of editorial consultants be selected to supplement the present editorial board. A list of possible consultants was prepared.
The newly established Standing Committee on International Exchange of Scholars and Students was discussed. A consensus was reached that this committee would participate in policy formation and program planning for exchange functions of the IUPS. A task force of this committee was asked to consider the revision of the volume entitled International Opportunities for Advanced Training and Research in Psychology that had been published by APA in 1966, in collaboration with the IUPS.
The working group on the International Biological Program had suggested that, as part of the project on human adaptability of the International Union of Biological Sciences, the IUPS should convene a Working Party on Performance Measurement in London in September 1967 under the chairmanship of Simon Biesheuvel. The plan was approved and an amount of US$1500 was allocated to this project, other costs to be borne by foundations, participants, and local sources. Summerfield agreed to present a report on this activity at the 1968 Executive Committee meeting.
Leontiev informed the committee that the 1966 International Congress proceedings would be published in three separate volumes, one in each of the working languages of the congress, and that free copies would be sent to all congress participants, libraries, and national societies that are members of the IUPS. Luria further indicated that negotiations had been initiated to publish seven volumes of selections from the congress symposia and papers. The volumes would include: (a) psychology and higher nervous activity, (b) electrophysiological, physiological and biochemical basis of behavior, (c) general problems of psychological processes, (d) psychology of perception, (e) psychological studies of memory, speech and thought, (f) developmental psychology and (g) social psychology.
The plans for the 1969 congress were introduced for discussion. Also presented was the composition of the Committee of Honor, the Organizing Committee, the Program Committee, and the Finance Committee. The Duke of Edinburgh had accepted the invitation to be the patron of the congress and G.C. Drew had been invited to be the President.
Sato reported that an Organizing Committee had been appointed by the Japanese Psychological Association for the 1972 International Congress in Tokyo.
Klineberg reported that although the IUPS relationship with UNESCO was good, the role of their Social Sciences Program was overshadowed by other activities. There were no psychologists in the UNESCO secretariat. The project on Main Trends in the Social Scienceswas continuing, with Piaget making a major contribution to the statement about psychology. But unfortunately, the Rwanda Child Development Project had been turned down by UNESCO.
Nuttin reported that the ISSC was undertaking studies on trends in the social sciences in France and on the relationship between social sciences and development.
The never-ending quest for membership in ICSU was once again discussed and judged to be a priority. Pfaffmann and Fraisse were authorized to continue working toward this objective. For his part, Luria was asked to represent the IUPS in relations with the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) as another way of strengthening the IUPS relationship with the biological sciences.
Changes in the Rules of Procedure were considered. The first amendment studied was to extend the interval between two international congresses to 4 years. Also, it was suggested that changes should be made to allow the retiring President of IUPS to remain an ex-officio member of the Executive Committee for 4 years.
The need to establish a full-time secretariat was reviewed briefly. Action was deferred due to the estimated cost of US$30,000 to $50,000 a year. The Executive Committee allocated US$200 of Union funds to pay for subscriptions to the International Journal of Psychology for a selected group of new universities.
Finally, arrangements were made for the Executive Committee to hold its next meeting in or near Amsterdam for 3 days immediately after the International Congress of Applied Psychology in August 1968.
This meeting took place in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, on August 2124, in conjunction with the Congress of the International Association of Applied Psychology. The IAAP is one of the four international psychological organizations affiliated with the IUPS, and this meeting provided for many of the members of the Executive Committee an opportunity to meet with colleagues attending the Applied Congress and to take part in the congress proceedings. Fraisse chaired the Executive Committee session with all members present, except Piaget and Pfaffmann who were excused.
In the presence of Jacques Paillard (Marseille, France) and Harry Alpert (UNESCO), the first item discussed was the relation of IUPS with the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS), which was a member of ICSU. The IUBS was composed of divisions in Botany, General Biology, Microbiology, and Zoology. In the division of Zoology, there were a number of sections, including a Section on Experimental Psychology and Animal Behavior. Fifteen national societies members of IUPS had sent representatives to this section: Belgium (Paulus), Canada (Bindra), Denmark (Perch, Rasmussen), France (Fraisse, Francès), Germany (Metzger), Iran (Etemedian), Italy (Marzi), Japan (Matsusabura, Morinaga), Netherlands (Duijker, Stovkis), Poland (Blanchowski), Switzerland (Inhelder, Meili), USSR (Smirnov), United Kingdom (Summerfield), USA (Russell), and Yugoslavia (Bujas, Petz). The implications of this complex and indirect relationship with ICSU were discussed, and it was noted that it would become further complicated by the application for membership in the section of the newly formed International Association of Ethologists.
Consideration of alternative relationships that IUPS might have with ICSU, IUBS, and the Section on Experimental Psychology and Animal Behavior led to the following recommendations: (a) to continue this discussion during sessions next year at the London congress, and (b) to encourage the convening, during the London congress, of a meeting of the 15 national societies that were members of the Section on Experimental Psychology for the purpose of exploring alternative structural arrangements with IUBS. On another aspect of the IUPS relationship with ICSU and IUBS, Luria reported on the IUPS contributions to the scientific activities of the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO). He mentioned that IBRO had held, in March 1968, an international conference on Brain Research and Human Behavior, where many presentations were devoted to neuropsychology.
R.J. Audley, Vice-Chair of the Program Committee of the 19th International Congress to be held in London in 1969, reported on the state of preparation of the congress. He indicated that two circulars announcing the congress had already been distributed. The committee discussed the need for the involvement of national societies, and for an adequate representation of younger psychologists as well as that of well-known figures on the program who could present important, basic issues in psychology.
Sato presented an outline summary of progress to date and projected plans for the 1972 congress in Tokyo, Japan. A very detailed tentative schedule of all the required preparations was presented. The three official languages were to be English, French, and Japanese. Discussion on the planning of this particular congress led to the decision that the structure and substance of future congresses, broadly speaking, be discussed at length by the Executive Committee at its next meeting in London.
Harry Alpert (UNESCO), present as an observer, joined Klineberg in a discussion of the relations with UNESCO and ISSC. They indicated that many important changes were being planned in the structure of ISSC. Among the recommendations for change in ISSC were that it should become a federation of International Unions in a relationship with UNESCO (similar to that of ICSU), that subventions to the international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) be given by UNESCO to ISSC in a lump sum for distribution among the NGOs, and that the ISSC Council include representatives from National and Regional Social Science Research Councils, along with representatives from the NGOs. After an extended discussion, a resolution was adopted whereby the IUPS indicated its preference for the present system of separate subventions, but noted that it would accept the new arrangement if adopted. The second part of the resolution stated that the IUPS was strongly opposed to the idea of the National Social Science Councils having the same status as the international disciplinary associations.
One of the major functions of IUPS being to establish and maintain effective international communications among psychologists, a whole day of the Executive Committee meeting was devoted to the report of the Standing Committee on Communication and Publications, chaired by Nuttin.
Plans were reviewed for a third edition of the International Directory of Psychologists, which would involve a number of alternative methods of preparation (e.g. computer processing) and support. The role of the national societies in support of the Directory would have to be increased and a revised financial structure should be adopted. Taking into consideration the many suggestions made, the Standing Committee, in collaboration with the Secretary-General, was asked to develop a revised plan.
The second item considered was the International Journal of Psychology, then in its second year of publication under the editorship of Germaine de Montmollin and with Deputy Secretary-General Gerhard Nielsen as associate editor responsible for the International Platform Section. Fraisse reported that the Journal had published 14 articles on perception-cognition, 6 on psycholinguistics, 13 on child-intellectual development, 42 on aspects of social and cross-cultural psychology, and 7 on methodological and theoretical issues in cross-cultural research. Half the authors were from the United States. There were 400 subscriptions to the Journal. A number of questions were raised about the advisability of devoting so much space to cross-cultural research and it was proposed that the Journal should mainly be concerned with fundamental, theoretical issues in psychology. There was a general commendation of the editor for the quality of the Journal in its initial 2 years, and a number of suggestions were made to help the Journal better serve the purposes of psychology internationally.
A third publication of the IUPS, the Trilingual Lexicon of Psychological Terms, which had been in preparation for a number of years, was in its final stage of editing and revision. To be most useful, the first edition had to be published soon, with any additional changes being deferred to subsequent editions. The possibility of adding the Spanish language was considered and rejected as impractical at this time.
Leontiev and Luria reported on the 1966 International Congress of Psychology and the publication of its proceedings. They announced that the three volumes of proceedings would be published by the end of 1968. Selected papers from the 1966 congress were also to be published. All royalties from these publications were to be assigned to the IUPS.
Summerfield and Simon Biesheuvel, who chaired the Working Party on Performance Measurement of the International Biological Program, announced that a Handbook on Approved Methods for Performance Measurement had been submitted for publication as a result of their work.
Finally, the Secretary-General informed the committee that he was preparing a brochure on the IUPS and that he would circulate a draft for comments and suggestions.
Four membership issues were presented for discussion. First, the then current member society representing the Netherlands agreed to relinquish its membership in favor of the Nederlands Instituut van Psychologen, clearing the way for this request to be sent to members of the Assembly for approval by mail ballot. Second, the Executive Committee approved the membership of the New Zealand Society as successor to the previous New Zealand Branch of the British Psychological Society. Third, the applications for membership received from Hong Kong and Panama were deemed to need more information before recommendation to the Assembly. The Iranian application was judged to be acceptable and would be recommended for Assembly approval at the London meeting. Fourth, it was noted that recent efforts to re-establish mail communications with Egypt and Venezuela thus far had failed, but would be continued.
A proposed amendment sent out to national members in July 1967 regarding a statutory change allowing the retiring President of the Union to remain as an ex-officio member for 4 years was strongly endorsed. The necessary clarification of the Statutes regarding the membership in both the Executive Committee and the Assembly led to the suggestion (to be approved at the next Assembly meeting) that the Statutes should stipulate that All members of the Executive Committee shall be members of the Assembly, and that In the event that a representative of a member society becomes a member of the Executive Committee, the member society be entitled to an additional Assembly representative.
As Chair of the Standing Committee on the International Exchange of Scholars and Students, Summerfield presented a review of current activities in international exchanges, and listed the current needs for increasing the opportunities for effective movement of younger scientists. It was decided that the Platform Section of the Journal should be used for this purpose. The Executive Committee approved the recommendation made by Summerfield that an International Young Psychologists Travel Fund be established under the auspices of the IUPS and asked him to prepare plans for implementation in order that this program could be operational for the London congress.
Following the usual presentation by the Treasurer of the financial statement for the preceding year, there was a discussion on financial matters, where, inter alia, it was decided to discuss, at the next Assembly meeting, the possibility of national societies increasing their contributions to the IUPS in consideration of the increased costs of operation.
A report from the round-table on Psychology in International Relations recommended the preparation of a book on the relationship between psychology and international affairs.
In view of the creation by the United Nations of a new award for individual contribution to progress in human rights, the Executive Committee unanimously recommended that the name of Professor Otto Klineberg be submitted by the Union.
The 19th International Congress of Psychology, the fourth to be held in Great Britain was held at University College London, from July 27 to August 2, 1969, under the auspices of the British Psychological Society (BPS) and the IUPS, with George C. Drew presiding. Table 9.2 presents the structure and composition of the Organizing Committee.
Total registration to the congress was 1921 members and 464 associates (Proceedings of the XIXth International Congress of Psychology, 1971). Forty-nine countries were represented. The entire cost of the congress was met from registration fees. The British Council, the Commonwealth Foundation, and the Wates Foundation generously helped a limited number of psychologists with travel costs.
Organizing Committee: 19th International Congress of Psychology (London, 1969)
The Organizing Committee first met in November 1966. Throughout the different stages of preparation, it received help in particular from the staff of University College London and the BPS.
|George C. Drew: President of the 19th International Congress of Psychology, London, 1969. |
The congress was officially opened at the Royal Festival Hall, by the Rt Hon Richard Crossman, Secretary of State for Health and Social Security, on behalf of Her Majestys Government. The presidential address, entitled British psychology, was given by Drew. Other addresses were given by R.J. Audley as President of the BPS and Fraisse as President of the IUPS. The latters talk was entitled De la fonction des congrès internationaux de psychologie (Proceedings of the XIXth International Conference of Psychology, 1971 ). Summerfield closed the formal opening ceremony with a vote of thanks to Secretary of State Crossman. The formal session was followed by a reception.
The scientific program consisted of five parallel sessions each day and contained 23 long symposia, 19 short symposia, 10 review papers, 5 specially invited papers, and 105 submitted papers. Table 9.3 presents the major themes of the scientific program. Film sessions were arranged as part of the program on three afternoons. Evening lectures were delivered by Broadbent (Relation between theory and application in psychology) and Luria (The origin and cerebral organization of mans conscious action). Two book exhibitions were also available.
The film sessions and review papers, which were an innovation at this congress, were particularly well attended. Appreciation was also expressed for the numerous opportunities provided by informal meetings and discussions between participants.
The closing session, held at the Royal Festival Hall on August 2, consisted of a most successful symposium entitled Psychology in the future, chaired by George A. Miller (Rockefeller University, USA). Participants were Karl Pribram (Stanford University, USA): Psychology tomorrow: The immediate future, Harry Kay (University of Sheffield, UK): Psychology: AD 2000: Facts, forecasting, fantasies and fallacies, and Masanao Toda (Hokkaido University, Japan): Possible roles of psychology in the very distant future. The congress was officially closed by Summerfield and followed by a farewell luncheon. Many receptions were given during the week of the congress, offered by the Secretary of State for Education and Science, by the Vice-Chancellor of the University of London, and by the Provost of University College London.
Main themes of the scientific program: 19th International Congress of Psychology (London, 1969)
This first (July 27) and second (July 31) sessions of the General Assembly were chaired by President Fraisse, in the presence of representatives from 25 member societies.
After approval of the minutes of the 1996 Moscow meeting, Fraisse reported briefly on the activities of the IUPS, emphasizing the importance of communications among member societies and the strategic value of international congresses. Secretary-General Jacobson commented on his annual report of the IUPS to UNESCO. The Treasurers report was then adopted and the Assembly considered the recommendation to raise the annual dues of the member societies, which had remained unchanged since 1951. It was unanimously agreed that the contribution should be doubled (from US$10 to $20 per unit), effective January 1, 1970. Asuggestion that the maximum number of units should be raised from 40 to 80 was tabled until the second session of the Assembly meeting.
Concerning publications, Nuttin reported that work was continuing on the Trilingual Lexicon, while Summerfield indicated that the Standing Committee on International Exchange of Scholars and Students was considering a revised edition of the volume on International Opportunities for Advanced Training and Research in Psychology. Montmollin and Nielsen reported on the International Journal of Psychology, providing circulation figures (N=662) and the wide geographical distribution of its subscribers. The countries of origin of the authors and the topics of the papers published were outlined. A suggestion was made that members should advertise the Journal in their national publications.
Leontiev reported that the proceedings of the 18th congress (Moscow) were being mailed to the congress participants and that five other volumes, edited by Luria and Russell, based on special material and colloquia, would be published by Academic Press on behalf of the IUPS.
Preliminary plans and the state of preparation of the 20th congress to be held in Tokyo, Japan, in 1972, were presented to the Assembly. On behalf of the Société française de psychologie, Fraisse invited the Assembly and it unanimously accepted an invitation to convene the 21st congress in Paris, in 1976.
Following a discussion on the procedures towards the improvement of the scientific usefulness of international congresses and program development, the Assembly agreed that the host society should have the ultimate responsibility in these matters, but that final decisions should be made only after extensive consultations with the national societies and the Union. For this purpose, Fraisse proposed, and the Assembly approved, the creation of an International Advisory Program Committee.
The change in the representation of the Netherlands was unanimously approved. The situation of the Egyptian Society for Psychological Studies was still unclear; it had failed to respond to numerous calls for payment of dues. On the other hand, the Venezuelan College of Psychologists had re-established contact with the Union and was readmitted to active status. The reorganization of the Indian Psychological Association was under way, and hope was expressed that its status would soon return to normal. The applications of the Psychological Association of Iran and the Colombian Federation of Psychology for membership were approved. The applications of Pakistan and Bulgaria, however, were deemed to be incomplete, while the application of Hong Kong did not obtain the support of a majority vote. Additional information from Hong Kong would be requested before its application could be reconsidered.
The Secretary-General reported that the mail ballot on the proposed statutory changes related to the representation on the Executive Committee had received strong approval.
|Executive Committee (19691972) at the 19th International Congress of Psychology, London, 1969Back row (left to right): ONeil, Westerlund, Summerfield, Pfaffmann, Russell, Nielsen, Bruner, and Mailloux. Front row (left to right): Leontiev, Fraisse, Tomaszewski, Tanaka, Nuttin, and Jacobson. |
Unanimous approval was given to change Article 8 to increase from 40 to 80 the maximum number of dues units to be assessed to any national society.
For the presidency, the nominations of Nuttin, Russell, and Summerfield were put to a vote; Russell was elected. For the vice-presidency, Luria, Mailloux, Nuttin, ONeil, Summerfield, and Tomaszewski had accepted nominations; Luria and Nuttin were elected. Bruner, Duijker, Fraisse, Leontiev, ONeil, Pfaffmann, Summerfield, Tanaka, Tomaszewski, and Westerlund were elected to the Executive Committee.
Harry Alpert, Director of Social Sciences at UNESCO, led an extended discussion of UNESCO programs in the social sciences and the nature of the relationship between international NGOs, such as the IUPS, and UNESCO. It was noted that research support was available from UNESCO National Commissions in various countries for activities related to UNESCO programs.
Information regarding the present status of the relations with ISSC and ICSU (through the Section on Experimental Psychology and Animal Behavior of the IUBS) was given to the Assembly.
Chaired by Fraisse, the first session held on July 26 was attended by all members of the Executive Committee, with the exception of Piaget.
The President reviewed previous discussions related to the responsibilities of the Executive Committee concerning international congresses and explored the possibilities of assuming a more active role in the development of programs.
The Secretary-General discussed the relationships of IUPS with the United Nations, UNESCO, and ICSU in connection with the interests of those organizations in the problems of Man and his Environment. He also distributed a report on the activities of the IUPS. The relationship with ICSU, through the section on Experimental Psychology and Animal Behavior of the International Union of Biological Sciences, was examined once again. It was deemed appropriate to maintain active contact and cooperation with this section.
The Treasurer presented the financial statements for 1968 and for the first half of 1969. Increasing costs, particularly those connected with the Executive Committee meetings each year, required additional funds. At the upcoming Assembly meeting, a proposition would be made to increase the annual dues from US$10 to $20 per assessment unit of 100 members.
Many issues related to membership were discussed by the Executive Committee. Arrears in dues payment of India and Venezuela were noted. The applications for membership of Colombia, Hong Kong, and Iran were approved for presentation to the Assembly. A mail ballot was approved for Pakistan and Bulgaria pending receipt of complete documentation. Further information was needed from Panama before any action could be taken.
The second session (August 2 and 3) of the Executive Committee was called to order by the new President, Roger Russell. With the exception of Duijker, Leontiev, and Luria, all members were present.
The first task was the appointment of the officers. Jacobson was appointed as Secretary-General, Nielsen as Deputy Secretary-General, and Mailloux as Treasurer.
Alpert, of UNESCO, was present and reviewed with the Executive Committee five current UNESCO programs of particular interest to the IUPS. These were: (1) Man and his Environment, (2) Social Science and Development, (3) Peace Research, (4) Aggressiveness, and (5) Problems of Youth. It was agreed to inform the national societies of the possibilities of obtaining UNESCO support in these areas.
The Executive Committee approved the contract with UNESCO for the publication of a survey of psychology and international relations to be directed by Klineberg. An Ad Hoc Committee was appointed to act as an editorial board for the publication.
Specific suggestions were made by Fraisse and approved by the Executive Committee regarding the organization of future congresses. For instance, it was agreed that the Japanese Psychological Association, host of the 20th congress, should draw up a provisional list of possible topics and send it to all members of the Executive Committee and member societies for their opinions and comments. Names of psychologists potentially capable of making original contributions to the program or suggestion of topics could be returned. Second, any psychologist would be encouraged to submit for consideration abstracts of papers on any recognized topic for the congress. Among the papers accepted some would be selected for oral presentation, whereas others would only be summarized by a designated speaker. Third, to assure international diversity, no more than two psychologists from a single country could be invited to participate in a given symposium. Finally, it was suggested that the scientific program include (a) reviews of important problems intended for the non-specialists, (b) round-table discussions of current problems, (c) invited addresses from well-known psychologists, and (d) some conferences intended for audiences made up not exclusively of psychologists. Pfaffmann spoke on the desirability of organizing satellite symposia with specially invited participants in order to encourage additional exchanges with colleagues from other disciplines. These meetings could be held before, during, and after the congress. It was also deemed desirable to have additional uncommitted room space so that seminars could be organized spontaneously during the congress.
Nuttin was reappointed Chair of the Standing Committee on Communication and Publications. The works in progress were reviewed. A manuscript on a UNESCO-sponsored survey on the teaching of psychology had been completed by Francès. Additional competitive bids for the publication of the third edition of the International Directory of Psychologists would be sought.
Summerfield remained as Chair of the Standing Committee on Exchange of Scholars and Students. It was agreed that he should prepare suggestions for a new structure of the committee, to be discussed in Tokyo. Regarding the support of young psychologists, the Secretary-General is to contact the national societies asking them for donations towards a travel fund.
Westerlund reported that the next International Congress of Applied Psychology would be held in Liège, Belgium, in 1971, to be followed by one in Montréal, Canada, in 1974.
The idea of organizing a group of young psychologists called the IUPS Forum on New Developments in Psychology was approved, under the leadership of the Deputy Secretary-General.
Information was provided on the publication of the proceedings of the 19th London congress. With a format and content similar to previous proceedings, it would be published in 1970. Liaison officers to the different organizations related to the IUPS were appointed: Summerfield for UNESCO and International Biological Program, Montmollin for ISSC, and Nuttin for ICSSD.
The meeting was held at APA headquarters on October 1417, 1970. With the exception of Duijker and Luria, all members of the Executive Committee were present. In his customary report, President Russell referred to the need for considering long-term developments in the social sciences and future directions for psychology. The report of the Secretary-General contained a detailed review of the relationships between the IUPS and other international bodies. The Treasurer led the discussion on a membership issue, the status of the Indian Psychological Association. Although the association had paid its 1970 dues, due to special circumstances it had not been able to make the payments of the four previous years. The Executive Committee agreed to write off this non-payment and to continue the membership of the Indian Association. If future difficulties of this nature should again arise, the membership status of this association should be critically reviewed.
After review by Russell and Pfaffmann of the history of the IUPS-ICSU relationship, it was decided that ICSU programs having psychological implications should be identified and attempts made to establish collaboration. The idea of full participation by IUPS in ICSU was once again discussed, noting that membership issues would be considered by ICSU only at its next Assembly meeting in 1972.
Fraisse reported on the International Journal of Psychology. He observed that the policy of the Journal had changed to make it more general in scope and that the number of subscriptions was slowly growing. Suggestions for changes in the Journal included: (1) the preparation of issues on special themes with invited papers; (2) the clarification of scientific controversy, with authors chosen to represent conflicting scientific positions; and (3) the screening of submitted papers in order to prepare issues with substantive focus. Nielsen spoke of the limitations placed upon the Platform Section by infrequency of journal publication, which made it difficult to have a truly current representation of issues dealing with international psychology. Summerfield suggested that the Platform Section be used to update international opportunities and information on the exchange of scholars and students.
Nuttin, reporting as Chair of the Communication and Publications Committee, noted that during the present year every effort would be made to complete the Lexicon project, which had been in preparation since the 1957 Brussels congress.
On the second day of the meeting, a long discussion took place on the function and purposes of international congresses. An introductory paper, analyzing the information exchange role of international congresses, was presented by Russell. Another paper based in part on research on international congresses conducted by the American Psychological Association, prepared by Harold Van Cott, was also distributed. Fraisse commented that congresses should serve to sharpen scientific questions, promote advances in the discipline, and report on the most recent developments. For his part, Nuttin drew attention to the characteristics of the communication processes during congresses, including audience readiness to understand and the factors that influence the effectiveness of scientific communication. He proposed increased use of discussion groups rather than paper-reading sessions, and noted that making use of opportunities for members of symposia to confront each other with opposing views could provide valuable contributions to a congress.
Nielsen remarked that the purposes of a large international congress are to provide opportunities for considering the objectives of psychology as a science, for obtaining information about subject matters outside ones field of competence, for initiating and facilitating exchanges between psychology and other groups in the international scientific, professional, and political communities, and for increasing dissemination of scientific materials. Mailloux observed that congresses provide models of scientific work for younger colleagues and syntheses of past research. For Bruner, the importance of congresses could be summarized in four functions: (1) mythological (developing the image of psychology through debate, confrontation and exposure), (2) educational (synopses, dissemination, interfaces, forms of presentation), (3) informational (new material, analytic and synthetic exercises), and (4) coalitional and affiliative (contacts, collaboration, exchanges, project development). Bruner added that opportunities for satellite meetings with representatives of other disciplines should be enhanced. Westerlund suggested that language problems were a major factor and that every effort should be made to increase the effectiveness of simultaneous translation. Finally, it was agreed by everyone that the excellent and innovative recommendations made should be translated into action and implemented at the earliest possible opportunity.
The Secretary-General reported on correspondence with the Hong Kong and the Panamanian societies. More information had been received concerning these two petitions and, after extensive discussion, it was decided to submit their applications to a mail ballot by Assembly members.
On the last day of the meeting, October 17, the candidacy of the Scandinavian Research Society was reviewed. Although not eligible for membership in the IUPS, it could be considered as an affiliate. More information was needed from this society before a recommendation could be made. It was reported that further attempts to establish contact with Egypt had not been successful.
The following years meeting of the Executive Committee would be held at the end of July in Liège, Belgium, in conjunction with the International Congress of Applied Psychology. Westerlund, acting President of the IAAP, extended an invitation to the IUPS to be represented at both the opening and closing ceremonies of the congress.
Just before closing the session, the Executive Committee recommended that a third Standing Committee on Cross-Cultural Research be established following suggestions that had been made at the previous meeting in London.
Russell presented his presidential report outlining several important issues that were to be considered during the current meeting. He reviewed the UNESCO survey of International NGOs with member societies in South Africa asking them about membership practices relating to apartheid policies. The Secretary-General had been asked to conduct an inquiry on this issue and had reported that the policy of the South African Society was that professional qualifications were the only standards for admission to membership. The Executive Committee requested, however, that a further inquiry should be made of the South African Society about current participation of non-whites in the work of the society.
Secretary-General Jacobson reported on two positive financial aspects of the IUPS program. First, after many years of negotiation, the US National Science Foundation had agreed to support some of the costs of the third edition of the International Directory of Psychologists; it was now necessary to find a European co-editor for the project. Second, UNESCO had provided a small increase in the amount of its biennial subvention to IUPS.
The report of the Standing Committee on Communication and Publications began with a report on the Lexicon. Final drafts had been received and final arrangements were being made with the publisher, Huber Verlag. Concerning the Journal, the search for a new editor to replace Montmollin had begun. A policy of Special Issues for the Journal was suggested; it was thought that one issue per year could be special. It could focus on current problems, the development of psychology in various parts of the world, or developments and reviews in various branches of psychology. All agreed that there was a need for making the Journal more attractive to a larger number of psychologists by making it multi-faceted. The problems of combining in one journal the functions of archival responsibilities, of encouraging communication among psychologists, of addressing current problems, and of supporting basic scientific developments were discussed.
Congratulations were addressed to Montmollin, present at the meeting, for her pioneering efforts in starting the Journal with very limited support. To summarize the extensive discussion on the Journal that went on during the afternoon session on July 22 and the morning session on July 23, it can be said that there was general agreement that: (1) the launching of the Journal had been a success and that it should be continued and improved, (2) that there should be Special Issues with guest editors , and (3) that the Platform Section serves an important function, but that it should perhaps be published separately. In addition to the Platform, the possibility of also circulating a newsletter should be considered.
Tanaka reported that plans for the Tokyo congress were nearing completion. He also observed that the organizers were planning a number of special events for the young psychologists who attend the congress. It was agreed that the Open Meeting, sponsored by the IUPS in London, had been useful and that a similar meeting should also be held in Tokyo.
The fourth session of the meeting was held on the afternoon of July 23. Invited participants to this session were Eugene Lyons, current head of the Department of Social Sciences at UNESCO, and Samy Friedman, Secretary-General of ISSC. Lyons reviewed the current program of UNESCO in the social sciences. He expressed UNESCOs concern with the social sciences in the developing countries. He noted the interest of UNESCO in human problems related to the control of the environment and the quality of life. He reviewed programs on population issues and human rights and peace that have social science implications. In response to Pfaffmanns comments on the relevance of studies of man and the biosphere, Lyons informed the committee that UNESCO was convening a Working Group on Human Factors in Environmental Change. All agreed that a fundamental task was the improvement of social science resources in the developing countries.
Friedman commented on the proposed new constitution of the ISSC and the new ISSC rules of procedure. He noted that these would allow the social sciences to present themselves in a more unified way and, potentially, make better use of their resources. There was an extended discussion of problems of financing new social sciences activities within the new ISSC, the role of UNESCO and the ISSC in the developing countries, and the administrative problems associated with effective ISSC operations.
On July 24, the last session of the 1971 meeting started with a discussion on possible candidates for editor of the Journal. Responsibility for this selection was delegated to the Secretary-General and the Chair of the Communication and Publications Committee. Regarding membership issues, correspondence with the Scandinavian Federation of Research Psychologists, whose membership had been discussed at the previous meeting, indicated that the federation was now eligible for affiliate membership in the Union. Correspondence with African psychological societies seeking membership information was deemed encouraging.
As for research projects supported by IUPS, it was reported that the political situation in Pakistan made it impossible to continue with plans for the literacy studies in this country. Mailloux was happy to report that the Rwanda project had been successfully completed and that it needed only limited support to enable publication. Nuttin remarked on plans that he and colleagues were developing for research on time perspective and development in the Congo. It was agreed to consider this new research as part of the IUPS research program after more information became available.
Jacobson reported that the establishment of a Standing Committee on Cross-Cultural Research depended for its success on a reasonable prospect of finding funds, since funds for this kind of research were not as readily available as they had been. No committee had yet been established.
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